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Chapter 20

Chapter 20 - Challenges with Globalization.docx

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University of Waterloo
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Chapter 20: Challenges of Globalization Sociology: a Canadian Perspective Globalizations and globalization Rise and fall of European capitalism  Turn of European globalization from 16 century at the emergence of capitalism  Bourgeoisie (modern class of entrepreneurs) arise – described as revolutionary and international by Karl Marx  Expansion of capitalism boosted at the European acquisition of the Americas  Firms in Europe grew as the modern state developed in its ability to regulate social conflicts  To social scientists and policy-makers, they thought that modern capitalism was going to perform well  Emile Durkheim argued that social sciences should be used to modernize society As the world changed th  Early part of 20 century, growing gap between social classes caused rebellion and wars o Various social movements, political projects, struggles to gain social and economic rights  Dream of rational state using science to improve life went away at World War II  Emergence of two superpowers (US and Soviet Union), rebellion of Asia, Africa, Latin America  Americanization dominated markets  the “American way of life” was invited to the world to copy  UN was developed to help the poor and restore peace  Development also saw emergence of new independent countries – world composed of three parts: capitalist West, socialist East, and the underdeveloped Third World Our modern globalized world  In 1980s, many Third-World countries fell into debt  US v. Soviet Union in cold war  American power became more assertive – major policy changed toward neo-liberalism o Economic policies changed to benefit the rich o Modern state’s mission was to optimize conditions for capitalism as neo-liberalism suppressed the right to the commons The contested impact of Neo-Liberal globalization  Canadian adopted neo liberalism in late 1980s  Neo-liberal priorities mean freedom for private capital, reducing taxes for wealthy individuals and companies, reducing budget transfers for health and education, etc. (helping the rich get richer), benefit the unemployed as well  Canada became more economically integrated with the US at NAFTA  Rising trade with US made Canadian economy richer  People believed neo-liberal policies led to a lost decade of social conflict, environmental neglect, etc. while other argued that it led to economic benefits for other countries. Breaking barriers: culture and technology  Tremendous economic and institutional changes were accompanied by transformations of cultural flows while supported by information and communication technology expansion  Western powers dominated these flows  Development of technology broke barriers of communication and information  Expansion of cellphone in 1990s caused another globalized culture  Internet had contradictory effects – people of other nations, minorities, and social groups began to communicate ‘their’ messages which counteracted with Western countries’ messages The great debate  Differing views of the latest globalization process and its impact o Positive – world has few barriers, more prosperity, more peace  Poor countries can trade with rich countries while becoming richer  Globalization is inexorable o Negative – globalization is imperialism  Resources of the Third World are plundered by dominant policies of free trade and liberalization  Rich nations take advantage of the poor o Neutral –  Peter Urmetzer is a globalization sceptic who believe the world has not changed  Globalization has not modified the way our societies work  Most economic transactions continue to occur within rich nations and a small number of Third-World nations  Globalization is a myth designed to make people accept policies that they otherwise would have fought  The world is not the same  Concerns – suppression of time and space (of policies and implementation due to modern info and communication technology)  Non-state actors (i.e. transnational corporations) have more influence in decision-making  Citizens is presented with the blurring distinction between what is local, national, or global  Globalization as traditional boundaries eroded and allowing flows on info and capital – Ulrich Beck One or many globalizations  Growing trend that affirms the multiplicity of globalization  Like Marx, modern capitalism levels off most national barriers that block expansion of capital – imperialism linked with nation-states has been replaced by globalization  Opening door for society to move beyond capitalism  Characterized by 4 types of change: o International expansion of social, political and economic activities o Interconnectedness of trade, investment, finance, migration, culture, etc. o Increasing speed of global interactions of transport, communication, ideas, goods, capital, etc. o Increasing impact, global consequence  Globalization as a widening, intensifying, speeding up, and growing impact of worldwide interconnectedness One global world: prospects and constraints  Crisis is in Mandarin depicts two ideas expressing destruction and opportunity  Global wars (America, Canada, Afghanistan, etc.)  Contradicts views of the era of peace at the end of the Cold War – belief that opening borders to trade and investment would eliminate ideological and political differences  Some argued that some areas would never accept the basic foundations of the Western world i.e. capitalism, free markets, individual freedoms, etc. therefore current and future conflicts will never end  Implications of neo-conservatism claimed that economic integration was not a road to peace and prosperity for the world – politics and culture would differentiate and be resolved by conflicts rather than through commerce and diplomacy Failing processes  Neo-conservatism, militarism, and religion similar in the US is evident in Canada  Many people have been put under scrutiny through legislations and monitoring mechanisms to single out potential threats and to diminish terrorism in the US Widening gaps through the crisis  Major problem of economic instability in the US arouse amidst other conflicts  Economic crash – many firms failed, many familie
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