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Chapter 1-5,7-10,14,17,20,23,24

SOC101 Chapter 1-5,7-10,14,17,20,23,24: textbook notes chapter 1-5,7-10,14,17,20,23,24.pdf

Course Code
Barry Mc Clinchey

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Chapter 1 – theory and methodology
Anthony gramsci – everyone is a social theorist
not only can anyone learn to make ideas or judgements, we already use intellects to explain how
society works. Following social rules unthinkingly. Often unthinkingly, routine, naturalistic.
George simmel – pink Floyd, comfortably numb. The world is the way it is and couldn’t be much
People are physical beings & intelligent beings. Able to question and resist rules eg survival.
Mills – must study ones experiences and the social context
Binary thinking – either/or statements. Structure or agency?
Structure – born into structured world with institutions and rules
agency – people are thinking and active individuals
Major changes --- old vs new. Traditional vs modern, rise of science vs religion
new world of enlightenment.
Auguste Comte invented the word sociology. Intended to create a science to understand social life.
3 stages
-god/super natural
-nature replaced miraculous
- application of science
Comte however became insane, attempted suicide, fell in love with clotilde de vaux who died of
tuberculosis within a yr,went through religion,
Positivism – truth is out there.
Herbert Spencer – believed in a food chain. Struggle for existence. Everyone’s selfish
Classical sociology
Naturalistic, non thinking, human nature – socially structured.
Weber – subjective factors (intentions, beliefs)
poverty usually begets poverty.
Comte – 2 contradictions about society. Always changing and stays the same.
Social solidarity – forces that generate agreement and consensus among people
Marx – social theory is not to understand the world but to change it (although some say you must
understand in order to change)
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) french
supposed to be a rabbi
People no longer shared a collective conscience. (lost a shared morality)
Societies were once held together by events eg. Gift giving, gossips, story telling,

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over time the sacred times became overshadowed by the secular.
Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) Modern individualism is paradoxically expressed by participation in the
rites of mass consumption.
Durkheim – power of religion and moral rules diminished. No longer united; uncertainty – anomie
Opposed sex, it was like treating a private act as if it were no more than digestion
Individualism was here to stay. Therefore the task of sociology was to end anomie and the conflict it
Organic solidarity – everyone working together, doing different jobs to aid in a greater system
Functionalism. *suicide – his friend killed himself because he felt disconnected in small towns and
isolated. Durkheim reasoned that that individuals' ties to community are important.
Karl Marx 1818-1883 German
often opposed by Weber and Durkheim.
Didn’t enter popular social theories until 1970s
ran away to England, living hand to mouth
believed in examining the way society produced and distributed basic necessities of life. --economy.
Over time, lands and goods; common property of all => private property to few.
Labourers produced more goods than needed. Surplus. This went to support Elite few.
Difference between traditional and modern society is capitalism.
Wage workers or proletariat makes goods; surplus ==> makes elite or capitalists rich and power.
Religion acted as the opium of the people to dull pain of oppression.
One day working class will fk up the system and then everyone’s equal = socialism.
But no revolution has occurred yet.
Alienation – separated from something. Humans from nature; good. Workers from humanity?
-- unequal economics, climate change, international conflict, threats to welfare.
Power and Resistances mind vs body.
rules are external to individuals' behaviours, codes of dress.
Also internal – we feel we ought to do them
no one is powerless. People exercise and provoke power and resistance in their positions.
Max Weber – 1864-1920 German
grew up with Marxism dominating.
'Disenchantment of the world' – rational & science to uncover mysteries.
Ability to exert power over others can be based on personal charisma aka charismatic authority. Eg
Hitler and Christ. Tradition and charisma have been replaced with legal-rational authority. Traditional
authority (self explanatory).
Bureaucracyhighly rationalized. Institutions taken this on.
Capitalism was taking over many things; except family religion and political values. Once industrialism
took off, all aspects of life changed. Modern capitalism created a newer middle class; more $ and
autonomy. Higher status.
Pierre bourdieu 1930-2002 – cultural capital- knowledge of taste; eg been to France before
social capital – personal connections (hook ups)
George Ritzer – McDonaldization. Globalization of rational.
To escape routine; people strive for self-cultivation through other things.
Focus on values and goals meant sociology couldn’t focus on social facts.
Facts – objective, Values – subjective

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verstehen – the need to understand someone subjectively.
sociology from perspective of individuals.
Charles Cooley – individuals develop a consciousness of self. 'who am i?'
Inter-subjectivity. 'what do i think you're thinking of me.' orienting thoughts to a specific situation.
GH mead 1863-1931
we view ourselves the way others view us, we put ourselves in their positions. Empathy
-- think reflexively. <-- through this is how we develop a sense of self.
We divide ourselves into different selves in relation to our acquaintances.
Erving Goffmantheatrical performance. “We are all role-players in a continually changing set of
dramas, moving from set to set, interacting with a shifting cast of multiple characters, and playing
different roles.
bottom up, little things make up the bigger system.
Feminist sociology
males dominated sociology and brought their bias.
Maternal feminists – nurturing, cooperative, peaceful, non-competitive > men.
Nellie McClung – combined ^ with campaign for political equality and economic rights.
Contrary to Durkheim; liberalize laws
Marx – key to freeing women from inequality is liberating from domestic slavery and integrate them
with men in production.
Marianne Weber (1870-1954) liberal feminism – German womens movement.
Mary Wollstonecraft’s vindication of the rights of women – woman’s rights to be equal!
Seeks to equalize women rights in economic structures. Better at getting rights than actual equality.
Socialist – ending economic and cultural oppression of women.
Radical feminism – independence of women; own self emancipation, sexism against them.
Dorothy smith – stand point theory; to see things from woman's perspective. Radical feminism is
engaged, explicit in goals and not value free.
Modernism and Post modernism
feminism fits in post modernism; which traditional theory of enlightenment. Enlightenment got filled
with politics and economics. Alongside enlightenment was romanticism.
Romanticism – deeper knowledge in emotions. Against social science. No rationality. No single
reality. Old ideas caused problems. Pg 28
lead to extreme relativism. No unitary 'self' rather much individualism and diversity.
Chapter 2 research methods
sociology as a science
real science
knowledge is based only on facts
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