Textbook Notes (363,556)
Canada (158,423)
Sociology (239)
SOC 201 (11)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10: Fraud

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University of Waterloo
SOC 201
Barry Mc Clinchey

CHAPTER 10: Fraud WHITE-COLLAR CRIME - Coined by Edwin Sutherland, 1949 o Committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation o Tax evasion, embezzlement, counterfeiting, insider trading, other types of fraud/theft - Fraud: use of deception to achieve financial or material gain - Economic and emotional impact – overshadowed by violent, more ”serious” crimes PREVALENCE OF FRAUD VICTIMIZATION - Undergrad and graduate students are more vulnerable because of their youth, their education and income levels - The number of fraud victimizations reported to police has decreased in the past 20 years - Same as violent crimes, victimization rates are highest in western Canada, and lowered in east - Senior are vulnerable to telemarketing fraud - Aboriginal people who live off-reserve are more vulnerable to fraud victimization than on DIFFICULTIES IN MEASURING FRAUD VICTIMIZATION - CC 380 – …false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person…of any property, money, or valuable security or any service o (a) Indictable offence, up to 14 years imprisonment o (b) Indictable offence, up to 2 years/summary offence, fine up to $5000 - CC 380.1 – Sentencing – aggravating circumstances o Value of fraud exceeding $1 million o Affected Canadian economy or financial system o Offence involved large number of victims - Difficulty determining prevalence of crime and how large victim pool is - Victims of fraud are often not aware that they have been victimized until significant time after the crime occurred – some cases, people aren’t aware at all - Data shows incidents of fraud appear to be decreasing – i.e. tradition – cheque fraud o But may not capture new types of fraud – credit card fraud, internet scams, etc LETTER, PHONE, AND INTERNET SCAMS - Spanish Prisoner scam o Potential victim is told by con artist that he/she is in contact with a very wealthy Spanish prisoner, whose identity must be kept secret in risk of danger o Assured that prisoner can buy freedom if he can get into his personal wealth o Help by paying a guard to access the prisoner’s money and is promised generous compensation for assistance o Then asks for more money because of obstacles (new guard/transportation/other fees) - Various internet and phone scams are specifically designed to gain the trust of potential victims so that they’ll part with cash, valuables, and/or personal information - Identity theft o When someone illegally acquires and uses another person’s personal information o On the rise due to technology and developing communication tools, and clearance rates for these crimes are decreasing o Victims suffer financial loss, damage to their credit rating and reputation, and emotional distress o Gateway offence: creating opportunities for more serious crimes to be committed - Phishing Scam o Designed specifically to solicit personal information by creating a website or email that looks exactly like one a victim might use o Internet has made access to potential victims easy and inexpensive - Advance Fee Fraud o Basically a potential victim is asked for money or personal information in advance of a substantial payout, which is never received o 419 Scam/West African/Nigerian Letter  “419” is the section of the Nigerian CC – doesn’t prosecute, but victim blames  419 Scam – individuals and businesses in wealthier countries like Canada/USA receive letters (via email, post) expressing urgent need for the recipient to carry out a “business t
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