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SOC 222 (15)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7: Social Learning Theory

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 222
Professor
Owen Gallupe
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 7: Social Learning Theory DO INDIVIDUALS LEARN TO BE DELINQUENT FROM OTHERS? ­ Social learning theory says yes ­ Those who reinforce teach them beliefs that are favourable to delinquency, and  expose them to delinquent models ­ Sutherland’s differential association theory o Criminal behaviour is learned through communication and interaction with  others ­ Akers’ social learning theory o Operant conditioning  ▯individuals tend to repeat behaviour that are  rewarded and avoid behaviours are punished JUVENILES LEARN TO ENGAGE IN DELINQUENCY FROM OTHERS  ­ Learning the same way they learn to engage in conforming behaviour – through  association or exposure to others ­ Fact: having delinquent friends is perhaps the strongest predictor of subsequent  delinquency, other than prior delinquency ­ Learning through – (1) reinforcement, (2) being taught beliefs, (3) a model to  imitate THE DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF DELINQUENCY  ­ More likely to engage in delinq when others have reinforced delinq in the past,  and anticipation that reinforcement will continue The Frequency, Amount, and Relative Probability of Reinforcement ­ Reinforcement vs. punishment ­ Differential reinforcement ­ different behaviours have different probabilities of  being reinforced Positive/Negative Reinforcement ­ Positive reinforcement – behaviour results in some good consequence o Can be money, pleasure, attention, approval, increase in status ­ Negative reinforcement – behaviour results in the removal of something bad o i.e. friends call you coward because refusal to do drugs with them,  eventually trying drugs removes the “stigma” – this drug use has been  negatively reinforced Punishment ­ Positive punishment – involves the presentation of something bad o i.e. spanking, continuous lectures   ­ Negative punishment – involves the removal of something good o i.e. reducing allowance, “no TV for a week” The Sources of Reinforcement and Punishment ­ Key role that other people play in reinforcing and punishing our beha
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