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1 - Pre-Reading - Biology 111 Scientific Method.docx

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University of British Columbia
BIOL 111
Lynn Norman

Sajad Niyyati Biology 111 Scientific Method The Process of Science Making observations of the world proposing ideas about how something works testing those ideas and discardingmodifying on ideas as a response to the results of a test is the essence of Scientific Reasoning The Nature of HypothesesIdeas about how things work are called HypothesesProposed explanation for one or more observations Scientific hypotheses must be quantitatively Not all hypotheses are testable Testable Hypotheses have to be falsifiable Statements that are value judgements are not scientific Scientific TheoriesIn order for a hypothesis to be considered a fact is that previous hypotheses have been rejected and the new hypothesis is yet to be rejected The third reason is that the new hypothesis conforms to a well accepted scientific theory A Scientific Theory is an explanation of a set of related observations based on well supported hypotheses from several different independent lines of researchmultiple hypotheses The Logic of Hypotheses Test The process used to construct a hypothesis is called Inductive ReasoningCombining a series of specific observations to discern a general principle Hypothesis testing is based on Deductive Reasoningusing a general principle to predict an expected observation The prediction is the result we expect from a hypothesis test ifthenIt is impossible to prove the if portion of a deductive statement is true because there are alternative hypotheses that explain why people with different vitamintaking habits are different in their cold susceptibility In other words demonstrating the truth if the then portion of a deductive statement does not prove that the if portion is true If vitamin C decreases risk of catching a cold then people who take vitamin C supplements will experience fewer colds that will people who do not take supplements Hypothesis TestingHypotheses cannot be proven true But if there were tests done and none of them successfully disproved the hypothesis then we consider that hypothesis as true
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