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7 - Pre-Reading.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 111
Professor
Lynn Norman
Semester
Fall

Description
Infectious Agents Communicable diseases result from the activity of infectious agents which gain access to the body and use the bodys resources for their own purposes as opposed to genetic diseases Disease causing organisms are called pathogens bacteria viruses eukaryotic pathogens Contagious pathogens can be spread from one organism to another Infectious pathogens find a tissue inside the body that will support its growth Parasites are organisms that obtain nutrients and shelter required for growth and development from a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of the host Microbes organisms that can be view under a microscope bacteria and viruses are infectious microbesBacteriaTiny single celled prokaryotic lack nucleus organisms Rod shaped bacilliSpherical cocci Spiral spirochetesNucleoid Region of the bacterial cell contains a doublestranded circular DNA chromosomeBacteria may also contain small circular extrachromosal DNA DNA that is separate from the chromosome called plasmids Bacteria have evolved to carry genes on these plasmids that provide protection against chemicals called antibiotics designed to kill them Cell Wall provides rigidity and protection and it is composed of carbohydrates and protein molecules Cell wall of many bacteria is surrounded by a gelatinous capsule which helps bacteria to attach to cells within tissues they infect IT also helps bacteria to escape destruction by cells of the immune system They might also have one or more external flagellae to aid in movement and pili which helps bacteria to attach to another bacterium and pass genes They reproduce by binary fission in which a dingle bacterial parent cell produces two identical daughter cells Plasmid gets copied during this process Page1
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