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Chapter 14

Textbook Notes on Chapter 14

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BIOL 112
Karen Smith

Chapter 14143 A comprehensive Model for DNA Synthesis DNA Polymerase can add deoxyridonucleotides to only the 3 end of a growing DNA chainDNA synthesis always proceeds in the 53 directionpolymerization rxns are exergonic release of energy due to monomers added to growing strand are deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates dNTPsdNTP N stands for any base pair ATCG have three phosphate groups close together so high PE high enough to make formation of phosphodiester bonds in growing DNA strand exergonicReplication Bubble where DNA opens up for replication which will occur in both directions at the same time for eukaryotic chromosomes there are multiple pointes of origin Origin of replication specific sequence of bases initially opened up by replication bubbleReplication fork a Yshaped region where the parent DNA double helix splits into two single stands which are then copiedHow is the double helix opened and stabilized helicase enzyme catalyzes breaking of Hbonds between deoxyribonucleotidesnow two strands of DNA are separate singlestand DNAbinding proteins SSBP attach tosingle stands so they cannot go back into helix form Both the helicase enzyme and DNAbinding proteins open up helix so it is available for copyingDue to unzipping at replication fork there is stress on rest of the DNA topoisomerase releaves stress by cutting and rejoining DNA downstream of replication form so undoes the twistsknots How is leading strand synthesized 1 DNA is opened unwound and primed Helicase opens double helix SSPB stabilize single strands Topoisomerase relieves stress Primase synthesize a short stretch of RNA to act like a primer for DNA polymerasePrimase is a type of RNA polymerase catalyzes polymerization of ribonucleotides to RNA these do not need a primer like DNA polymerase and can act as primer for DNA polymerase2 Synthesis of leading strand beginsSliding clampholds DNA polymerase in place during strand extension DNA polymerase III works in 53 direction synthesizing leading strand
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