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BIOL 112 (160)
Chapter 15

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BIOL 112
Karen Smith

Chapter 15 Notes 15.1 What do Genes Do? - knock-out mutants, null mutants, loss-of-function mutants: a mutant of a particular gene that does not function at all - metabolic pathway: order of chemical rxns that build or break a certain molecule (Each gene contains information to make one enzyme) - most proteins act as enzymes that catalyze specific rxs in metabolic pathways - allele: a particular version of a gene - genotype: all of the alleles of every gene present in a given individual, may refer to the allels of a certain set of genes under a study - phenotype: detectable physical/physiological traits of individual, associated with certain alleles. 15.2 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology - 20 types of amino acids - mRNA: carries information from DNA to the site or protein synthesis - RNA polymerase (enzyme that catalyzes RNA synthesis) synthesizes according to the information provided by the sequence
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