Chapter 15 Notes
15.1 What do Genes Do?
- knock-out mutants, null mutants, loss-of-function mutants: a mutant of a particular gene that does not
function at all
- metabolic pathway: order of chemical rxns that build or break a certain molecule (Each gene contains
information to make one enzyme)
- most proteins act as enzymes that catalyze specific rxs in metabolic pathways
- allele: a particular version of a gene
- genotype: all of the alleles of every gene present in a given individual, may refer to the allels of a
certain set of genes under a study
- phenotype: detectable physical/physiological traits of individual, associated with certain alleles.
15.2 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
- 20 types of amino acids
- mRNA: carries information from DNA to the site or protein synthesis
- RNA polymerase (enzyme that catalyzes RNA synthesis) synthesizes according to the information
provided by the sequence