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BIOL 121 (72)
Chapter 53

Textbook Notes on Chapter 53

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 121
Professor
Carol Pollock
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 53 Species Interaction Fitness ability to survive and produce offspringTypes of Interactions interactionbenefit fitness of a member interactionhurts fitness of a member0 interactionno effect on fitness of a memberThree Key themes 1 Species interactions can affect distribution and abundances of a certain species 2 Coevolutionspecies influence each others evolution reciprocal adaptations lead to long term change sin characteristics of a population and short term affect to population sizes 3interactions are dynamic and conditional and have many variables Competitioninteraction of different individuals using same resources which when are in limitation prevents individuals from surviving better and having more offspring Darwin individuals within a population compete and some are successful leaving more offspring than others and if these traits are heritable then genes in population can change causing evolution by natural selection occurring Intraspecific competition within species for space sunlight food and other resources intensifies as populations density increases major cause of densitydependent growth Interspecific competition between species for same limiting resources ONLY occurs when niches of two species overlaps1 Consumptive competition individuals consume same resources ex Trees competing for water2 Preemptive competition one species makes space unavailable to other ex Crowded garden3 Overgrowth competition one species grows more than other ex Big plant shadows little ones4 Chemical competition one species produces toxins that hurt other species 5 Territorial competition a mobile species protects its feedingbreeding territory against others6 Encounter competition two species interfere directly to specific source hyenas vs vulturesOne Species is Better Competitive exclusion principal not possible for 2 species with same niche to exist together Asymmetric competition 1 species suffers higher fitness decline than other species does Symmetric completion each species experiences equal decrease in fitnessFundamental nichespace species takes up when competitors are not there Realized niche space species takes uptolerates when competition is there
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