Chapter 50 An Introduction to Ecology
Biological Science, 3e (Freeman)
1) Which level of ecological study focuses the most on abiotic factors?
A) speciation ecology
B) population ecology
C) community ecology
D) ecosystem ecology
2) Which abiotic factor would have the most significant physiological effect on migrating
A) water solute content
B) competition for resources
C) water temperature
D) human-built structural interferences
3) In deep water, which of the following abiotic factors would most limit productivity?
B) light availability
C) solute concentration
D) all of the above
4) Wetlands are standing bodies of freshwater, just like lakes and ponds. However, wetlands are
different from lakes and ponds because ________.
A) wetlands have shallow water.
B) wetlands have emergent vegetation.
C) wetlands have oxygen-poor water.
D) answers A and B both apply.
E) answers B and C both apply.
5) Which of the following statements regarding turnover is true?
A) In fall turnover, dense water at 4°C sinks and disturbs sediments in the benthic zone.
B) In fall turnover, dense water at 4°C rises and disturbs sediments in the benthic zone.
C) The surface water gets to 4°C only by cooling.
D) Fall turnovers and spring turnovers are exactly the same.
6) A fish swimming into a bog environment in Ohio would likely have which of the following as
its greatest physiological challenge?
A) The low oxygen content would make it difficult for the fish to swim aerobically.
B) The low nitrogen content would make it difficult for the fish to synthesize proteins.
C) The high temperature would stress the fish by denaturing its proteins.
D) The high water flow would make the fish expend more energy.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 7) A fish swimming into an estuary from a river would have which of the following as its
greatest physiological challenge?
A) The high water flow would make the fish expend more energy.
B) The low oxygen content would give the fish difficulty in swimming aerobically.
C) The temperature change would stress the fish by denaturing its proteins.
D) The change in water solute content would challenge the osmotic balance of the fish.
8) The carnivorous pitcher plant is successful in bog habitats because ________.
A) it can tolerate lack of oxygen in the bog water.
B) it can tolerate the high acidity of the bog water.
C) it can gain nitrogen in an unusual way.
D) it can gain oxygen in an unusual way.
9) In the limnetic zone, you are most likely to find which organism?
10) A fish species known for its success in the aphotic zone would likely not have which of the
A) symbioses with photosynthetic organisms
B) highly developed chemoreception
C) adaptations for burrowing
D) adaptations for sit-and-wait predation
11) The specific abiotic factors defining a biome are ________.
A) maximum annual temperature and moisture levels.
B) average annual temperature and moisture levels.
C) annual variation in temperature and precipitation.
D) maximum annual temperatures, moisture levels, and average annual temperature.
E) average annual temperature, moisture levels, and annual variation in temperature and
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Figure 50.1
12) Looking at the above figure, which number would designate the tropical wet forest biome?
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 15) Based on the data in Figure 50.2, which of the following statements is false?
A) Area 1 has more average precipitation than area 2.
B) Area 1 would be considered a desert because of its high average temperature.
C) Area 2 would be considered a desert because of its low average precipitation.
D) Area 2 has a large annual temperature variation.
16) Based on the data in Figure 50.2, which of the following statements is true?
A) Area 1 could be called a boreal forest.
B) Area 2 could be called a temperate grassland.
C) Area 1 could be called a tropical wet forest.
D) Area 2 could be tundra.
19) Which of the following terms does not describe how much all of the plants in a biome grow?
B) net primary productivity
C) aboveground biomass
D) photosynthetic quotient
20) Which of the following statements regarding temperate grasslands is false?
A) Prairie fires can result from lightening strikes.
B) Grassland soils are not very fertile.
C) Grasslands are lower in productivity than tropical forest communities.
D) Grasslands have too little precipitation to support tree growth.
21) According to the latest hypotheses, why do evergreens predominate in cold environments?
A) Evergreens begin photosynthesizing in early spring, even before the snow melts.
B) Evergreens do not shed their leaves and thus do not need as many soil nutrients.
C) Evergreens photosynthesize all year round.
D) Answers A and B are both correct.
E) Answers B and C are both correct.
22) Which of the following is not a biotic component of a burrow community?
A) the different species living in the burrow
B) the population of each species in the burrow
C) the air quality of the burrow
D) the food sources in the burrow
23) What is the main difference between climate and weather?
A) Weather typically describes a larger area than climate.
B) Climate typically describes longer-term conditions.
C) Climate typically describes shorter-term conditions.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 D) Weather includes temperature and climate does not.
24) Besides sunlight, which would be the next most important climatic factors for plants?
A) wind and fire
B) moisture and wind
C) temperature and wind
D) temperature and moisture
25) What happens to animal and plant diversity as latitude decreases?
A) Animal and plant diversity increases.
B) Animal and plant diversity decreases.
C) Animal and plant diversity is not affected by latitudinal changes.
D) Animal and plant diversity increases in variation per unit area.
E) Animal and plant diversity decreases in variation per unit area.
26) What is the main reason that climatic conditions on Mercury differ from those on Earth?
A) planet size
B) existence of plant life
C) average distance from the Sun
D) existence of an atmosphere