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Chapter 54

Biology Freeman 3E Chapter 54 Practice Quiz.pdf

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 121
Professor
Martin Adamson
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 54 Ecosystems Biological Science, 3e (Freeman) Figure 54.1 1) How are the components in Figure 54.1 linked by the flow of energy? 2) When primary producers expend energy to build new tissue, this is ________. A) net primary productivity. B) the amount of energy available to consumers. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 C) maintenance costs. D) Both A and B E) Both B and C 3) Which of the following consume other living organisms? A) primary producers B) herbivores C) carnivores D) decomposers E) Both B and C Figure 54.3 4) Figure 54.3 represents net primary productivity in what way? A) organized by biome B) organized by geography C) organized by region D) randomly organized 5) Which habitat type in Figure 54.3 covers the largest area on Earth? A) tropical wet forest B) open ocean C) algal beds and reefs D) wetlands 6) Which habitat type in Figure 54.3 makes available the most new tissue to consumers? A) tropical wet forest B) open ocean C) algal beds and reefs D) wetlands Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 7) Which category in Figure 54.3 makes available the highest productivity per square meter? A) tropical wet forest B) open ocean C) algal beds and reefs D) wetlands 8) Which terrestrial category in Figure 54.3 has the highest economic impact on Earth's ecosystem? A) tropical wet forest B) rock, sand, and ice C) tropical seasonal forest D) bogs 9) What is the leading hypothesis as to why terrestrial productivity is higher in equatorial climates? A) Productivity increases with temperature. B) Productivity increases with water availability. C) Productivity increases with available sunlight. D) Hypothesis is most likely a combination of the other answers. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Figure 54.4 10) After looking at the experiment in Figure 54.4, what can be said about productivity in marine ecosystems? A) Nothing can be said based on this information. B) Marine organisms break down iron for energy and thus for productivity. C) Iron can be a limiting nutrient in productivity. D) Productivity increases when chlorophyll a is added. 11) Detritus can be consumed by which of the following primary decomposers? A) bacteria B) archaea C) fungi D) earthworms E) all of the above Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 4 12) What is the main reason for using food webs instead of food chains in analyzing ecosystems? A) Most organisms eat more than one type of food. B) Most organisms feed at several trophic levels. C) The decomposition cycle needs to be shown. D) Answers A and B both apply. E) All of the above answers apply. Figure 54.5 13) After looking at Figure 54.5, what can be said about productivity in this ecosystem? A) Nothing can be said based on this information. B) Between 80 and 90% of the energy is lost at the next highest trophic level. C) Between 10 and 20% of the energy is lost at the next highest trophic level. D) Productivity increases with each trophic level. 14) Why is energy lost when herbivores eat primary producers? A) Primary producers have energy stored in indigestible substances. B) Primary producers cannot produce once eaten. C) Digestion takes place so rapidly that very little energy is absorbed. D) Most primary producers contain no usable energy for herbivores. 15) If plants in a northern temperate area use 26,400 kcal/m2 of energy from solar radiation in photosynthesis, and the total amount of solar radiation energy reaching that area is 2,640,000 kcal/m2, what is the overall gross photosynthetic efficiency? A) 0.01% B) 0.1% C) 1% D) 100% 16) Plants never use 100% of the incoming solar radiation for photosynthesis on a yearly basis. What is a reasonable explanation for this? A) Plants cannot photosynthesize during winter (in cold winter climates). B) Plants cannot photosynthesize during dry periods. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 5 C) The pigments that drive photosynthesis respond to only a fraction of the wavelengths available. D) Both A and C E) Both B and C Figure 54.6 17) In Figure 54.6, which number represents secondary production? A) 1.6% B) 17.7% C) 80.7% D) none of the above 18) Which of the following statements about secondary production is true? A) Endotherms have higher metabolic rates compared to ectotherms and therefore have higher secondary production. B) Ectotherms have higher metabolic rates compared to endotherms and therefore have higher secondary production. C) Endotherms use less internal energy for metabolism and therefore have higher rates of secondary production. D) Ectotherms use less internal energy for metabolism and therefore have higher rates of secondary production. 19) At the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, how did large amounts of energy leave the decomposer food web? A) Energy was lost through incomplete decomposition. B) Detritus was washed away into streams during heavy rain. C) Detritus was sublimated by increased solar radiation. D) Large numbers of decomposers emigrated from the area. 20) You own 300 acres of patchy temperate forest. Which one of the following actions would increase the net primary productivity of the area the most? Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 A) adding fertilizer to the entire area B) introducing 100 rabbits into the area C) planting 500 new trees D) relocating all the deer found in the area 21) What do researchers typically focus on when they study a particular biogeochemical cycle? A) the nature and size of the reservoirs B) the rate of element movement between reservoirs C) interaction of the current cycle with other cycles D) Both A and B E) Both B and C 22) Regarding soil and organic matter in humus, which of the following statements is true? A) Humus is composed of inorganic nutrients, and organic matter is composed only of organic matter. B) Soil organic matter is completely decayed. C) Completely decayed soil organic matter is called humus. D) Eventually, the nutrients in soil organic matter are converted to organic form. 23) Which of the following most often controls the rate of nutrient cycling in ecosystems? A) rate of decomposition of detritus B) primary productivity C) secondary productivity D) Both B and C Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 Figure 54.7 24) After looking at the experiment in Figure 54.7, what can be said about nutrient export in ecosystems? A) Nutrient export is typically 10 times lower in a clear-cut watershed. B) Nutrient export is typically 10 times higher in a clear-cut watershed. C) Nutrient export is typically 10 times higher in an uncut watershed. D) Nutrient export is not affected by any form of cutting. 25) Based on the experiment in Figure 54.7, all of the following are plausible reasons for the result except: A) Nutrients evaporate now that vegetation is absent. B) Nutrients dissolve in the water running through the watershed. C) Nutrients are attached to small particles of sand or clay that leave the watershed. D) Plant roots that held soil particles in place are no longer there. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Figure 54.8 26) Considering the global water cycle depicted in Figure 54.8, where does one find the largest amount of water changing phases? A) groundwater runoff to oceans B) movement of water vapor from ocean to land C) evaporation/transpiration and precipitation over land D) evaporation and precipitation over the oceans 27) Which of the following human activities is impacting the water cycle the least? A) increase in asphalt and concrete surfaces B) conversi
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