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BIOL 153 (6)

Regulation of bile - notes .docx

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BIOL 153
Paul Hewitt

Regulation of bile releaseThe liver makes bile continuouslyWhen there is no food in the small intestine the hepatopancreatic sphincter the entrance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct into the small intestine is closed and the bile backs up into the gallbladderWhen food enters the small intestine activation of mechano and chemoreceptors leads to parasympathetic stimulationThis mildly stimulates gallbladder contractionThis also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin and secretin from the duodenal and enteroendocrine cellsBesides their action on the stomach these hormones also have effects on the gallbladder and liverCholecystokinin stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release its contentsIt also allows the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax and allow the bile to enter the small intestineSecretin stimulates the liver to increase its rate of producing the watery bicarbonate rich bileThe PancreasThe pancreas is an accessory organ which lies right below the stomachIt produces many of the digestive enzymes and also secretes and alkaline fluid that helps neutralize the acid in chymeComposition of pancreatic juicePancreatic juice consists mainly of water enzymes and bicarbonate ionsThis high pH enables pancreatic fluid to neutralize the acid chyme entering the duodenum and provides and optimal environment for the activity of enzymesPancreatic proteases are secreted in an inactive form and activated in the duodenumThis prevents the pancreas from selfdigestion
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