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Chemistry Review Manual

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CHEM 121
Michael Wolf

Chemistry Review Manual Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology McMaster University 2011 Dr R S Dumont and Dr P E Lock Page 1 of 42 Table of Contents1T h e M o l e 411How do we use the moleCounting atoms and molecules4 Example11Howmanyheliumatoms4 Example 12How many water molecules5 12Balancing Chemical Reactions 5Example 13Balance the following chemical reactions 5 13Stoichiometry and limiting reactant 6Example 14Limiting reactant and yield6 14Density7Example 15Mass of 1 mL cube of copper7 3Example 16Mass of 1 m cube of copper7 15Solutions 8Example17HowmuchHCl 8 Example 18Water volume added to achieve dilution 8 16Titration and solution stoichiometry 9Example19TitrationofNaOHsolution9 Example 110Titration of NaCO solution9 23P r o b l e m s10 S o l u t i o n s112 The Ideal Gas Law1321The Gas Laws 1 3Example21Molarmassofagas 13 Example 22Temperature change accompanying volume change 14 Example 23Pressure change accompanying volume change14 Example 24Temperature change accompanying pressure change 15 Example25YieldofHCl15 22Partial Pressure 1 6Example 26The mole fraction of water in saturated air 16 Problems 1 7Solutions 1 8 3 Acids and bases21 31BrnstedLowry Theory2 1 Example 31 Identify acid and base in a given reaction 21 32Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 2 2Table 31Strong acids and a few weak acids23 Table 32Strong bases and a few weak bases23 Example 32Ordering acids and bases according to strength24 33Types of Acids and Bases2 4Table 33Oxoacids and oxoanions 25 Table 34Some simple organic acids and bases 26 Problems 2 6Solutions 2 8 4Bonding30 41Types of Bonding 3 0 Example41Typeofbonding 30 42Solutions3 1Figure 41Solvation of sodium and chloride ions in aqueous solution 32 Figure 42Lewis structure and molecular shape of water 32 Figure 43Lewis structure of CCl3 34Page 2 of 42 Example42Electrolytesolutions 33 Example 43Pairs of compounds forming solutions 34 Problems 3 4Solutions 3 6 5MathSkills38 51Scientific Notation 3 8 Example51Scientificnotation 38 Table51UnitsofDistance 38 52Dimensional Analysis3 9Example 52How many Cu atoms are there in a penny39 53Solving for a variable4 0Example 53 New concentration after dilution40 Example 54Two equations and two unknowns40 54Logarithms4 1 Periodic Table of the Elements4 2Page 3 of 42
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