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CHEM 302 (14)
Chapter 1

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 302
Professor
Michael Wheeler
Semester
Fall

Description
1CHAPTER 1MEASURESOFATMOSPHERICCOMPOSITIONTheobjectiveofatmosphericchemistryistounderstandthefactorsthatcontroltheconcentrationsofchemicalspeciesintheatmosphereInthisbookwewillusethreeprincipalmeasuresofatmosphericcompositionmixingrationumberdensityandpartialpressureAs we will see each measure has its own applications11MIXING RATIOThemixingratioCofagasXequivalentlycalledthemolefractionXisdefinedasthenumberofmolesofXpermoleofairItisgiveninunitsofmolmolabbreviationformolespermoleorequivalentlyinunitsofvvvolumeofgaspervolumeofairsincethevolumeoccupiedbyanidealgasisproportionaltothenumberofmoleculesPressuresintheatmospherearesufficientlylowthatthe ideal gas law is always obeyed to within 1ThemixingratioofagashasthevirtueofremainingconstantwhentheairdensitychangesashappenswhenthetemperatureorthepressurechangesConsideraballoonfilledwithroomairandallowedtoriseintheatmosphereAstheballoonrisesitexpandssothatthenumberofmoleculesperunitvolumeinsidetheballoondecreaseshoweverthemixingratiosofthedifferentgasesintheballoonremainconstantThemixingratioisthereforearobustmeasure of atmospheric compositionTable11liststhemixingratiosofsomemajoratmosphericgaseswithamixingratioThemostabundantismolecularnitrogenN2C078molmolNaccountsfor78ofallmoleculesintheN22atmosphereNextinabundancearemolecularoxygenOwith2C021molmolandargonArwithC00093molmolO2ArThemixingratiosinTable11arefordryairexcludingwatervaporWatervapormixingratiosintheatmospherearehighly6210molmolThisvariabilityinwatervaporispartvariable10ofoureverydayexperienceasitaffectstheabilityofsweattoevaporate and the drying rate of clothes on a lineOArandHOarepresentintheGasesotherthanN222atmosphereatextremelylowconcentrationsandarecalledtracegasesDespitetheirlowconcentrationsthesetracegasescanbeofcriticalimportanceforthegreenhouseeffecttheozonelayersmog
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