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Chapter 7

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 302
Professor
Michael Wheeler
Semester
Fall

Description
113CHAPTER 7THE GREENHOUSE EFFECTWeexamineinthischaptertheroleplayedbyatmosphericgasesincontrollingthetemperatureoftheEarthThemainsourceofheattotheEarthissolarenergywhichistransmittedfromtheSuntotheEarthbyradiationandisconvertedtoheatattheEarthssurfaceTobalancethisinputofsolarradiationtheEarthitselfemitsradiationtospaceSomeofthisterrestrialradiationistrappedbygreenhousegasesandradiatedbacktotheEarthresultinginthewarmingofthesurfaceknownasthegreenhouseeffectAswewillseetrappingofterrestrialradiationbynaturallyoccurringgreenhousegasesisessentialformaintainingtheEarthssurfacetemperature above the freezing pointThereispresentlymuchconcernthatanthropogenicincreasesingreenhousegasescouldbeinducingrapidsurfacewarmingoftheCHandEarthThenaturallyoccurringgreenhousegasesCO24NOshowlargeincreasesoverthepastcenturyduetohuman2activityFigure71TheincreaseofCOwasdiscussedinchapter26andtheincreasesofCHandNOwillbediscussedinchapters4211and10respectivelyAdditionalgreenhousegasesproducedbythechemicalindustrysuchasCFC11havealsoaccumulatedintheatmosphereoverthepastdecadesandaddedtothegreenhouseeffect Figure 711800360METHANECARBON DIOXIDE1600340140032012003001000280 CONCENTRATION ppbv800 CONCENTRATION ppmv42CHCO600260195020001850190017501800195020001850190018001750YEARYEAR03310CFC11NITROUS OXIDE0230001290O CONCENTRATION ppbv2CFC11 CONCENTRATION ppbvN00280195020001850190017501950180020001850190017501800YEARYEAR Figure 71Rise in the concentrations of greenhouse gases since the 18th century114Aswewillseeinsection73simpletheoryshowsthatariseingreenhousegasesshouldresultinsurfacewarmingtheuncertaintyliesinthemagnitudeoftheresponseItiswellestablishedthattheglobalmeansurfacetemperatureoftheEarthhasincreasedoverthepastcenturybyabout06KTheevidencecomesfromdirecttemperatureobservationsFigure72toppanelandalsofromobservationsofsealevelriseandglacierrecessionAccordingtocurrentclimatemodelsthisobservedtemperaturerisecanbeexplainedbyincreasesingreenhousegasesThesamemodelspredictafurther15Ktemperatureriseoverthenextcenturyasgreenhouse gases continue to increase06CaColdWarm190019502000Date15CbColdWarm600100015002000Date6CcMidlatitude air temperatureColdWarm3020100Date kyr BP6CdColdWarm150100500Date kyr BP Figure 72Trend in the surface temperature of the Earth at northern midlatitudesoverthepast150000yearsEachpanelfromthetopdownshowsthetrendoveranincreasinglylongertimespanwiththeshadedareacorrespondingtothetimespanfor the panel directly aboveThe record for the past 300 years is from directtemperature measurements and the longerterm record is from various proxiesFromGraedelTEandPJCrutzenAtmosphericChangeanEarthSystemPerspectiveNew York Freeman 1993
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