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CHEM 302 (14)
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Chapter 13.pdf

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 302
Professor
Michael Wheeler
Semester
Fall

Description
247CHAPTER 13ACID RAINAcidrainwasdiscoveredinthe19thcenturybyRobertAngusSmithapharmacistfromManchesterEnglandwhomeasuredhighlevelsofacidityinrainfallingoverindustrialregionsofEnglandandcontrastedthemtothemuchlowerlevelsheobservedinlesspollutedareasnearthecoastLittleattentionwaspaidtohisworkuntilthe1950swhenbiologistsnoticedanalarmingdeclineoffishpopulationsinthelakesofsouthernNorwayandtracedtheproblemtoacidrainSimilarfindingsweremadeinthe1960sinNorthAmericatheAdirondacksOntarioQuebecThesefindingsspurredintenseresearchtounderstandtheoriginoftheacid rain phenomenon131CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRECIPITATION1311 Natural precipitationPurewaterhasapHof7determinedbydissociationofHO2moleculesR1OHOHH2RainwaterfallingintheatmospherealwayscontainsimpuritiesevenintheabsenceofhumaninfluenceItequilibrateswithaweakacidfollowingthereactionspresentedinatmosphericCO2chapter 6OH2R2gCOHOCO222COHOHCOHR32232HCOCOHR433Thecorrespondingequilibriumconstantsindilutesolutionat298K21COHOP3x10MatmKHCOHareKH22CO21372HO43x10MpK64andKCOHHCOCO22123311MpK103Fromtheseconstantsandapreindustrial47x102COconcentrationof280ppmvonecalculatesarainwaterpHof2
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