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Chapter 4

COMM 292 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Angela Kelleher
Chapter
4

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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour
Chapter 4
What is Motivation?
Motivation: the intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a
goal
Intensity: how hard a person tries
o High intensity is unlikely to be beneficial unless it is channeled correctly
Effort requires persistence (measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort)
Theory X: suggests that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be
coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
o Suggests that people are extrinsically motivated
Theory Y: suggests that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will
exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
o Suggests that people are intrinsically motivated
Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation
o The level of motivation differs both among individuals and within individual at
different times
Intrinsic motivators: a person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as
interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic motivators: motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such
things as pay, bonuses and other tangible rewards
Punishment by Rewards: suggests that if the right environment is provided, people will be
motivated
Needs Theories of Motivation
Needs theories: describes the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals
Process theories: help us understand the actual ways in which we and other can be
motivated
Needs theories have been criticized for not holding up to scientific review
o The theories represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown
o Managers still use these theories and terminology in explaining employee motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory:
A hierarchy of five needs - psychological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization - in
which as soon as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
o Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs
o Safety: includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm
o Social: includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
o Esteem: self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition and attention
o Self-actualization: growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment
No need is ever fully met, but substantially satisfies allows for advancement
o To satisfy someone, you must determine what level of the hierarchy the are currently
present
Higher order needs are satisfied internally, while lower order externally
ERG Theory:

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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour
Version of Maslow's hierarchy that includes three core needs: existence, relatedness and
growth
Believed that an individual could be focused on all three levels at once
Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
Relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with
dissatisfaction
Achievements, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth are related to job
satisfaction
o People that felt good about work, attributed these characteristics to themselves
Extrinsic factors like policies, administration, supervision etc. are related to dissatisfaction
o People that are dissatisfied, they attribute the extrinsic factors
Herzberg proposed satisfaction/no satisfaction and dissatisfaction/no dissatisfaction
Factors of job satisfaction (motivators) are different factors of dissatisfaction (hygiene
factors)
o Hygiene factors: policy, salary, admin, supervision, interpersonal relations etc.
When these factors are satisfied, people will not be dissatisfied
Motivation is emphasized through achievement, recognition, responsibility and growth
The procedures used in the theory are limited, as it attends to blaming/attributing certain
characteristics
The reliability of the theory is questionable as there may have been tainted results
No theory was actually created, and no measure of satisfaction was used
The theory ignores previous research such as situational variables
McClelland's Theory of Needs:
Achievement, power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
Achievement: drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
o People striving to do things better, seeking more responsibility, challenging tasks
o High probability tasks, that are not too easy, or too hard, but that can be accomplished
o More focused on individual performance rather than the firm or organization
Power: need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
o Desire to impact others and have control over situations and others
o Tend to be more competitive and focused on status/prestige rather than effective
performance
Affiliation: desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
o Strive for friendly relationships rather than competitive/high understanding
relationships
The best managers tend to have a high need for power and low need for affiliation
Summarizing Needs Theories:
Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
There are different needs that must be met before other needs can be considered
Process Theories of Motivation:
Expectancy Theory:
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COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour
Individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good
performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether
that outcome is attractive
Effort-Performance Relationship:
Expectancy: the belief that effort is related to performance
Individual perception of how probably it is that a given effort will lead to good
performance
Employee expectancy is influenced by self-esteem, previous success, help from
supervisors, information and proper materials/equipment
Performance-Rewards Relationship:
Instrumentality: the belief that performance is related to rewards
o Negative instrumentality indicated that high performance reduces the chances of a
desired outcome
o 0 instrumentality indicates no relationship between performance and receiving the
desired outcome
Individual perception of whether performing at a given level will lead to a desired outcome
o Whether the performance will be acknowledge by those who allocate rewards
Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship:
Valence: the value or importance an individual places on rewards
o Ranges from -1(very undesirable reward) to +1(very desirable reward)
Degree to which organizational rewards satisfy goals/needs and attractiveness of potential
rewards
Managers often do not have the resources to reward, or reward the wrong things for
accomplishments
Expectancy Theory in the Workplace:
Research of the theory, even in cross-cultural settings have supported the expectancy
theory
Goal-Setting Theory:
Intentions of working toward a goal are a major source of work motivation
o Goals tell employees what needs to be done and with how much effort
Some firms leave goal setting up to managers, although goals may then not be set
Management by objective (MBO): managers and employees jointly set performance goals
that are tangible, verifiable and measurable
o Progress on goals is often reviewed and rewards are allocated on the basis of the
progress
How Does Goal Setting Motivate?
Goals indicate where individuals should direct their efforts when prioritizing
Goals suggest how much effort an individual should put into a given task
Goals create persistence so effort will be spent on a task over time
Goals will help people develop plans for achieving specific goals
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