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Chapter 7

COMM 292 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: The Sender, Communication Apprehension, Organizational Communication


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Angela Kelleher
Chapter
7

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COMM 292: Observational Behaviour
Chapter 7
The Communication Process
Transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people
The sender establishes the message, encodes the message and chooses the channel in which
to send it
The receiver decodes the message and provides feedback to the sender
o Communication problems happened when there is a disruption during these processes
o The process is affected by the sender's perception of the receiver and visa-versa
Encoding and Decoding:
Encoded: converting a message to a symbolic form
Decoded: interpreting a sender's message
Skill, attitudes, knowledge and socio-cultural system affect message encoding and
decoding
Communicative success includes speaking, listening, and reasoning skills
o Interactions with others are affected by our attitudes, values and beliefs
Messages sent/received by people of equal rank are interpreted different than if received by
someone else
The Message:
What is communicated, the actual physical product from the source after it is encoded
o Affected by the code, or group of symbols, we use to transfer meaning, the message
itself, and the decision that we make in selecting and arranging both codes and
content
Messages may not always encapsulate what one or both parties intended/feel
The Channel:
The medium through which a message travels
o Selected by the source who must determine which channel is formal and which is
informal
o Formal channels are established by organizations and transmit messages relating to
the job
o Informal channels are forms such as personal/social messages
Communication apprehension: undue tension and anxiety about oral communication,
written communication or both
Some channels are rich in the ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate
rapid feedback and be very personal
Channel richness: amount of info that can be transmitted during a communication episode
The frequency of the messages also determines the channel in which messages are sent
o Non-routine messages are more effective through rich channels
Managers find it easier to deliver bad news through emails, and these messages are
delivered more accurately through this channel
The Feedback Loop:
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COMM 292: Observational Behaviour
The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a
check against misunderstandings
o The receiver needs to give feedback and the sender needs to check it
If the sender or receiver fails to provide feedback the communication becomes one-way
o Two-way communication involves both talking and listening
The Context:
All communication takes place within a context
o The context prevents different expectations (ex. The workplace, or the bus stop)
Informal communication can look informal and therefore unprofessional (viewed
negatively)
o Formal communication can make others feel uncomfortable
It is important to consider the context in both encoding the message and choosing the
channel
Barriers to Effective Communication
Filtering:
A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourable by the
receiver
o As information is passed on it needs to be synthesized, and filter out irrelevant
information
o Personal interest affects what is filtered, how things are synthesized, what is
important
The size and levels of an organization affect how information is filtered
Selective Perception:
Receivers process selectively what they see/hear based on their needs, motivation,
experience, background and other personal characteristics
o Also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode
them
Defensiveness:
When people feel they are being threatened they tend to react in ways to reduce their ability
to achieve mutual understanding
o Engage is behaviours such as verbally attacking others, making sarcastic remarks,
being overly judgmental and questioning others' motives
Information Overload:
State of having more information than one can process
o Employees suffer from having too much information (ex. Email, IM, faxes, phone
calls, etc.)
Language:
Age, education and cultural backgrounds influence the language we use and definitions of
words
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