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Comm 292: Organizational Behaviour Textbook notes


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Angela Kelleher

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COMMERCE 292: ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR NOTES
Chapter 1
DEFINING OB
OB: field of study that looks at the impact that indies, groups and structure have on behavior within
organizations
o Applied to: jobs, absenteeism, turnover, productivity, motivation, working in groups and job
satisfaction
Behaviour: what people do and how they perform
Organization: consciously coordinated social unit that functions on a relatively continuous basis to
achieve (a) common goal(s)
TODAY’S CHALLENGES
Indie level challenges
Working w/ others: personality, perception, values and attitudes
How to behave ethically in face of competing demands from diff. stakeholders
Job satisfaction = better productivity (avoid absenteeism and turnover)
Motivation: recognition
Empowerment: becoming a coach, adviser, sponsor, facilitator vs boss, involving workers in decision
making, handing out responsibility
Ethical behaviour: study of moral values/principles (do the right thing)
Group level challenges
Working w/ others: developing interpersonal skills
Diversity: variety in race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age (generations)
Organization level challenges
Using temp employees: part time, on call, short term, day labourers
Improving quality and productivity: achieves its goals by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest
cost
Productivity: efficiency and effectiveness
Organizational citizenship behaviour: no part of job description but effective
Helping employees balance work and life
Creating positive work environment
Global competition (ie USA in Canada)
Practices of successful orgs:
Security, pay, training, hiring the right people, value, performance reviews
BUILDING BLOCKS OF OB
Psych: measure/explain/change human/animal behaviour
Social psych: people’s influence on a nother
Sociology: social system in which indies fill their roles (relative to enviro/culture)
Anthro: humans and their activities
RIGOUR OF OB
Consistencies: not the same but fundamental consistencies (ie rules)

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COMMERCE 292: ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR NOTES
Beyond common sense: systematic study: making reasonably accurate predictions, scientific study:
looks at relationships attempting to attribute cause and effects based on scientific evidence
o Field/lab/case/survey studies and meta analysis
Few absolutes: few universal principles
Contingency approach: depends on the situation
Competing values framework: flexibility vs control and external vs internal focus
o Helps identify some of the most useful skills
o Acknowledges 2 dimensions: inward/internal (employee needs), outward/external (factors like
marketplace, enviro, gouv’t reg, changing tech/social/enviro conditions in the future)
o Refers to competing demands of orgs to stay focused on what has been done in the past vs
flexible in orientation and outlook
CHAPTER 2
PERCEPTION
Process by which indies organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to
environment/surroundings
Affected by personality, motives, interests, past experiences, expectation
Target’s characteristics
The situation: time of day, environment
PERCEPTUAL ERRORS
Attribution Theory
we observe atypical behaviour and try to understand it (determine if it is due to an internal or external
cuase)
o Distinctiveness: indie acting similarly regardless of the situation
o Consensus: how and indie’s behave. Compares w/ others in same situ
o Consistency: action repeated over time
Fund. Attri. Error: we underestimate ext. influences and overest. Int. infl.
Bias: success claimed to be due to internal factors and failure b/c external factors
Selective perception
distorts observation
Halo effect
drawing a general impression of an indie based on single characteristic
Contrast effect
reaction to one person is influenced other people we recently encounter
Projection:
tendency to attribute own characteristics to other people
Stereotyping
aka heuristics: judgment shortcuts in decision making based on perception of a group, generalizations
result
prejudice: unfounded dislike based on belonging to a stereotyped group
Self fulfilling prophesy
people will try to validate their perceptions of reality
expectation’s influence on behaviour

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COMMERCE 292: ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR NOTES
PERSONALITY
Def: stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states determining how an indie reacts and
interacts w/ others
o Determined by heredity:
Physical: gender, temperament, attractiveness, reflexes, energy level, biological rhythms
Genetics explains 50% personality
Does it change over a lifetime?
Big 5 model
Five factor model of personality (scale/range)
They underlie all other and encompass the most sig. variations in personality
o Extraversion: sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness
o Agreeableness: degree to which you are good natured, cooperative, trusting
o Conscientiousness: responsibility, dependable, persistent, achievement oriented
o Emotional Stability: calm, self confident, secure
o Openness to experience: imagination, artistically sensitive, intellectual
WHAT ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCE OB?
Core self evaluation
Positive self evaluation = effective, capable, in control
Negative self evaluation = dislike themselves, question capabilities, powerless
Machiavellianism
Degree to which you are pragmatic, have emotional distance, ends justifies means
High mach = manipulate more, persuaded less, persuade others
Good sales people but consider ethical implications
Narcissism
Arrogance, self-importance, needs admiration and sense of entitlement
Tend to talk down to those who threaten them, selfish, exploitive, less effective
Self monitoring
Ability to adjust/adapt to external stimulated factors
High: more likely to be high performers and become leaders
Risk taking
Willingness to take chances
Large corps = more risk than small entrepreneurs
EMOTIONS
Emotions: Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
Moods: less intense emotions and lack contextual stimulus
Emotional labour: when an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal
interactions
Emotional intelligence: non-cognitive skills, capabilities and competencies that influence a person’s
ability to succeed in coping with enviro demands and pressures
o Intuitive appeal: street smarts and social intelligence are important
o EI predicts things that matter: high EI = better performance on job
o Biologically based: ppl w/ neurological damage score lower
o Too vague: not clear and too broad
o Can’t be measured: can there be right and wrong questions, measures are diverse and can’t be
compared
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