COMM 292 Chapter Notes -Transformational Leadership, List Of Corporate Collapses And Scandals, Management

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Department
Course
Professor
Leadership
Are Managers and Leaders the Same?
Management
Leadership
Engages in day to day caretaker activities:
Maintains and allocates resources
Formulates long term objectives for
reforming the system: Plans strategy and
tactics
Exhibits supervisory behavior: Acts to
make others maintain standard job
behavior
Exhibits leading behavior: Acts to bring
about change in others congruent with
long term objectives
Administers subsystems within
organizations
Innovates for the entire organization
Asks how and when to engage in standard
practice
Asks what and why to change standard
practice
Acts within established culture
Creates vision and meaning for the org.
Uses transactional influence: Induces
compliance in manifest behavior using
rewards, sanctions, formal authority
Uses transformational influence: Induces
change in values, attitudes, behavior using
personal examples and expertise
Relies on control strategies to get things
done by subordinates
Uses empowering strategies to make
followers internalize values
Status quo supporter and stabilizer
Status quo challenger and change creator
LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Leadership as Supervision
Trait Theories: Are leaders different from others?
Trait theories of leadership theories that propose traits personality, social,
physical, or intellectual differentiate leaders from non-leaders
Usually described in terms such as charismatic, enthusiastic, courageous
Organize traits around the Big Five Personality Model
Ambition and energy extraversion
o Extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders
o Also, its more strongly related to leader emergence then to leader effectiveness
Conscientiousness and openness to experience Showed strong relation to leadership,
but not as strong as extraversion
Agreeableness and emotional stability does not offer help in predicting leadership
Leaders who are extraverted, conscientious (disciplined, keep commitments they
make), and open (creative, flexible) advantage
Conclusions: (1) Traits can predict leadership, using the Big Five Model & (2) Traits do a
better job at predicting the emergence and appearance of leaders rather than the
effectiveness
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Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
EI another trait that may indicate effective leadership
Empathy core component of EI
o Sense others’ needs, listen to what followers say, able to read the reactions of
others
o Show care and concern rewarded with loyalty
Behavioral Thoeries: Do Leaders Behave in Particular Ways?
Theories that propose that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders
Tried to identify critical behavior determinants of leadership in hope that they could
train people to be leaders
Main approaches consider 2 main dimensions by which managers can be characterized:
attention to production and attention to people
The Ohio State Studies
Initiating structure extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her
role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals
o Behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships and goals
Consideration extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized
by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings
o High consideration = shows concern for employees’ comfort, being, status,
satisfaction
The Michigan Studies
Employee oriented leaders a leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations
o Take personal interest in the needs of their subordinates
o Accept individual differences
Production oriented leaders a leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of
the job
o Concerned with making sure the group accomplishes its tasks
o Sees the group members as a means to that end
The Leadership Grid
Aka The Managerial Grid
A two way dimensional grid outlining 81 different leadership styles
Based on styles of concern for people (y-axis) and concern for production (x-axis)
9 possible positions along each axis 81 different positions
Shows the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking with respect to how to get results from
people, without focusing what the specific results are
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Impoverished Management (1,1)
o Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain org
membership
Authority-Obedience Management (9,1)
o Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that
human elements interfere to a minimum degree
Middle of the Road Management (5,5)
o Adequate organizational performance is possible through balancing the necessity to
get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
Country Club Management (1,9)
o Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationship leads to a
comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo
Team Management (9,9)
o Work accomplishment is from committed people who have a common stake in the
org’s purpose relationships of trust and respect
Research Findings: Behavioral Theories
When subordinates experience a lot of pressure from deadlines or unclear tasks, people
oriented leaders will increase employee satisfaction and performance
When the task is interesting/satisfying, there is less need for leaders to be people oriented
When its clear how to perform the task and what the goals are, leaders who are people
oriented will increase employee satisfaction, while those who are task oriented will increase
dissatisfaction.
When people don’t know what to do or don’t have the knowledge/skills to do the job, it’s
more important for leaders to be task than people oriented.
Followers of leaders that are people oriented: more satisfied, more motivated, more respect
for their leaders
Followers of leaders that are task oriented: higher levels of group and org productivity,
receive more positive performance evaluations
Contingency Theories: Does the situation matter?
Contingency/Situational theories propose leadership effectiveness is dependent
on the situation
The relationship between leadership style and effectiveness suggests that there is no one
right style, but that style depends upon the situation the leader faces.
Variables:
o Degree of structure in the task being performed
o Quality of leader-member relations
o Leader’s position power
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Document Summary

Maintains and allocates resources reforming the system: plans strategy and tactics. Exhibits leading behavior: acts to bring make others maintain standard job about change in others congruent with behavior long term objectives. Asks how and when to engage in standard. Asks what and why to change standard practice practice. Uses transformational influence: induces compliance in manifest behavior using change in values, attitudes, behavior using rewards, sanctions, formal authority personal examples and expertise. Uses empowering strategies to make done by subordinates followers internalize values. Trait theories of leadership theories that propose traits personality, social, physical, or intellectual differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Usually described in terms such as charismatic, enthusiastic, courageous. Organize traits around the big five personality model. Ambition and energy extraversion: extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders, also, its more strongly related to leader emergence then to leader effectiveness. Conscientiousness and openness to experience showed strong relation to leadership, but not as strong as extraversion.

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