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COMM 292 Chapter Notes -Loop Jump, Job Satisfaction, Radical Change

Course Code
COMM 292
Leah Sheppard

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What causes change? Chapter 14
Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, global competition, management and/or
organization structure
Integrating different function areas, modifying the degree of centralization,
downsizing, relying on job rotation and/or multi-skilling, outsourcing,
collaborating on R&D
Degree of change varies by size
Forces for Change
Nature of the workforce
o Ex. adjusting to a multicultural environment or aging workforce
o Human resource policies and practices have to change
o Now perceived as necessities
Economic shocks
o Ex. Dot com bubble, financial crisis in 2008
o Global competitors
o Growth of e-commerce
Social trends
World politics
Opportunities for Change
Job redesign more autonomy increased job satisfaction
Importance of how you motivate employees to attain specific outcomes
Reorganizing the workplace changing the structure to flatter structures
more interconnections within
Change in org. culture

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Change Agents
Change agents = people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for
managing change activities
Possibility: hire services of someone outside the firm (consultants) to provide
advice and assistance with major change
o Objective perspective
o Disadvantage: inadequate understanding of the org’s history, culture,
procedures, and personnel. Prone to initiating more drastic change than

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Approaches to Managing Change
Lewin’s Three Step Model
Unfreezing change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual
resistance and group conformity
o Increase driving forces direct behavior away from the status quo
o Decrease restraining forces forces that hinder movement from the
existing equilibrium
o Combine the two methods
o Companies with strong cultures excel at incremental change but are
overcome by restraining forces against radical change
o Use positive incentives to encourage acceptance of change
Pay increases
Low-cost mortgage funds
Counseled individuals
Moving efforts to get employees involved in the change process
Refreezing stabilizing change intervention by balancing driving and
restraining forces
o Replace temporary forces with permanent ones
o Ex. new bonus ststem tied to the specific changes desired
Conception of change as an episodic activity
Kotter’s Eight Step Plan for Implementing Change
1. Establish sense of urgency compelling reason why change is needed
2. Form coalition with enough power to lead the change
3. Create new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision
4. Communicate the vision throughout the organization
5. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and
encouraging risk-taking and creative problem-solving
6. Plan for, create, and reward short-term wins that move the org. towards the
new vision
7. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes and make necessary adjustments
8. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating relationship between new behaviors
and org success
Action Research
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