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Chapter 4

OB Ch.4 (c) Alyssa Leung


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Tracey Gurton
Chapter
4

Page:
of 7
Alyssa Leung
September 28, 2010
Theories of Motivation
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
-effort of intensity, direction and persistence a person exerts in reaching a goal
-intensity: how HARD someone tries
-direction: WHERE someone wants to go - is clear of it
-persistence: how LONG they can stick to their goal
Theory X
-negative -- employees don’t like to work and are controlled with punishments to achieve goals
- driven by extrinsic motivators
Theory Y
-positive -- employees like work, and are self directed and controlled in achieving goals
-driven by intrinsic motivators
-INTRINSIC motivators: personal factors -- motivated by personal DESIRE (interest, challenge); rewards
(satisfaction rather than pay)
-EXTRINSIC motivators: outside factors (eg pay, bonuses, rewards)
NEEDS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (pg 136)
-NEEDS theories: types of NEEDS that must be met to motivate workers
-people have NEEDS which will result in MOTIVATION when unsatisfied
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
-five needs within a person
-one level builds on the other (5 being at the top)
Lower-order (satisfied externally)
1. Physiological - hunger, thirst, shelter, sex
2. Safety - security, protection from physical/emotional harm
Higher-order (satisfied internally)
3. Social - affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship
4. Esteem - internal (self-respect, autonomy, achievement); external (status, recognition, attention)
5. Self-actualization - growth, achieving one’s potential, self-fulfillment; “becoming”
Alyssa Leung
September 28, 2010
ERG Theory
1. Existence (physiological, safety)
2. Relatedness (social, status)
3. Growth (esteem, self actualization)
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
-when workers are satisfied, their reasons are INTRINSIC (eg work, recognition, achievement, growth,
responsibility)
-when workers are dissatisfied, their reasons are EXTRINSIC (eg policies and admin, supervision, work
conditions)
MOTIVATORS (intrinsic) -> SATISFACTION
HYGIENE FACTORS (extrinsic)-> DISSATISFACTION
-when such factors are eliminated, does NOT ensure satisfaction
-this theory is only concerned with job satisfaction; ignores productivity
McClellands Theory of Needs
1. Achievement (nAch)- drive to excel, strive to succeed
2. Power (nPow)- have control over others’ behaviours; rather be influential than productive
3. Affiliation (nAff)- desire for close and friendly relations than competitive ones
PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
-PROCESS theories: actual WAYS in which people will be motivated
Expectancy Theory
An employee will have good performance when he/she believes that...
1. EXPECTANCY (Effort-Performance Relationship) -- 0 to 1
-effort WILL lead to good performance
-believe that they have the skills to finish the task
2. INSTRUMENTALITY (Performance-Rewards Relationship) -- -1 to 1
-good performance will lead to ORGANIZATIONAL REWARDS (bonus, salary, promo)
Alyssa Leung
September 28, 2010
-would those with the POWER recognize my performance?
3. VALENCE (Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship) -- -1 to 1
-rewards will satisfy his/her PERSONAL goals/needs
Goal-Setting Theory
-goal: something an individual is trying to achieve/accomplish
-stretch goals: aggressive performance targets
-management by objectives (MBO) -- managers and employees set goals together; measurable and
verifiable
How Does Goal Setting Motivate?
direct attention - direct peoples’ efforts and sets priorities
regulate effort - suggests HOW MUCH effort should be put into a task
increase persistence - with goals in mind, people will stick with a task even in face of obstacles
encourage development of strategies and action plans - develop plans to achieve goal
Goals must be:
-attainable (reasonable and achievable)
-results-oriented (support vision/mission)
-time-bound (given time period)
-difficult goals -> higher performance
-feedback -> higher performance -- PERFORMANCE-REWARD (efforts are recognized)
-financial incentives may lower commitment to difficult goals, refuse to help co-workers
-goals related to EFFORT-PERFORMANCE -- goals determine what must be done
Self-Efficacy Theory
-social cognitive theory, social learning theory
-refers to the fact that individuals BELIEVE they can complete a task
-self-efficacy = CONFIDENCE in success
-high: put more effort when faced with difficult task, motivated when given negative feedback
HOW to help employees achieve HIGH self-efficacy?
-goal-setting+self-efficacy theory --> set higher goals
Enactive Mastery - having past, successful experience with task/job
Vicarious Modelling - more confident seeing someone else doing task (eg friend loses weight)