Effort of intensity, direction and persistence a person exerts in reaching a goal. Direction: where someone wants to go - is clear of it. Persistence: how long they can stick to their goal intensity: how hard someone tries. Negative -- employees don"t like to work and are controlled with punishments to achieve goals driven by extrinsic motivators. Positive -- employees like work, and are self directed and controlled in achieving goals. Intrinsic motivators: personal factors -- motivated by personal desire (interest, challenge); rewards (satisfaction rather than pay) Extrinsic motivators: outside factors (eg pay, bonuses, rewards) Needs theories: types of needs that must be met to motivate workers. People have needs which will result in motivation when unsatisfied. Maslow"s hierarchy of needs theory five needs within a person. One level builds on the other (5 being at the top) Esteem - internal (self-respect, autonomy, achievement); external (status, recognition, attention) Self-actualization - growth, achieving one"s potential, self-fulfillment; becoming .