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Chapter 7

OB Ch.7 (c) Alyssa Leung


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Tracey Gurton
Chapter
7

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Alyssa Leung
October 12, 2010
Communication
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
-communication: transfer and understanding of a message between 2 or more people
-foundation for what happens among groups and between coworkers
-poor communication -- significant source of interpersonal conflict
-Communication Process Model (pg 266)
-interactive and iterative process
ENCODING AND DECODING
-encoded: converting a message to symbolic form
-decoded: interpreting of the message by the receiver
Factors:
-skills (eg communication skills)
-attitudes (good or bad attitude when sending/interpreting)
-knowledge
-socio-cultural system (rank in any hierarchy affects ability to communicate)
THE MESSAGE
-message: what is communicated
-eg when we speak, the message is the speech
-message is affected by the CODE (group of symbols) used to transfer MEANING, as well as the CONTENT and how we arrange the
codes/content
-“lost in translation” -- when two parties (eg during a contract) do not have the SAME understanding of terms
-collective agreement: written b/w management and unions (encoding of their negotiations)
THE CHANNEL
-channel: medium through which a message travels
-formal channels -- established by the organization and transmit messages related to job activities
-informal channels -- personal/social messages
-a poor channel can DISTORT a message
-communication apprehension: undue tension and anxiety about oral or written communication
-may rely on other channels (memos, emails, letters) over phone call/face to face
Capacities of Channels (Exhibit 7-2 Pg 269)
1. handle multiple cues simultaneously
2. facilitate rapid feedback
3. be very personal
-channel richness: amount of info that can be transmitted during a communication episode
-eg face-to-face is highest -- max amount of info transmitted
-offers multiple info cues, immediate feedback, personal touch of “being there”
- high-performance managers better match channels and ambiguity of messages
-routine messages: straightforward and have minimum of ambiguity -- lower in richness
-nonroutine messages: complicated and have potential for MISUNDERSTANDING -- higher
THE FEEDBACK LOOP
-feedback loop: final link; a check whether message was understood
-to prevent miscommunication: receiver needs to give feedback, sender needs to check for it
-responsibility is on the RECEIVER for the feedback
THE CONTEXT
-context: where communication takes place
-eg context of a workplace requires more FORMAL interaction, when compared to context of a bus stop (informal)
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
FILTERING
-filtering: when a sender manipulates information so that the receiver will view it more favorably
-eg manager tells a senior executive what the executive wants to hear -- condense and synthesize
-determinant of filtering is number of LEVELS in an organization
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