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Chapter 1

COMM 292: Chapter 1

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University of British Columbia
COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292 – Management and Organizational Behaviour Chapter 1 Defining Organizational Behaviour  Organizational behaviour: field of study that looks at the impact that individual groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization o Behaviour: what people do in an organization and how they perform  OB most often is applied to business, but can go beyond the traditional work place What Do We Mean by Organization?  Organization: coordinated social unit that functions to continuously achieve common goals o Manufacturers, schools, hospitals, churches, military, retail stores, the police etc.  Businesses that supply 10 people or less make up 75% of the Canadian marketplace o Small to midsized business make up 45% of Canada's GDP (up 25% in 20 years)  There are different types/sizes of organizations, but most theories are applicable to all OB is for Everyone:  Employees are now being asked to play a more proactive role in the workplace o The roles of managers and employees are beginning to become blurred o Managers rely more on employees to make decisions rather than follow orders  OB is applicable for entrepreneurs and self-employed, as they interact with others  OB is relevant anywhere people come together to share/work on goals or to solve problems The Importance of Interpersonal Skills:  Until the 1980's business schools only focused on the technical aspects of business o Business schools now teach human behaviour and organizational effectiveness  Quality of an employee's job and support in the workplace are more important than money  Technical skills are sufficient but not enough to strive and succeed in the workplace o In an increasingly competitive workplace employees need intrapersonal skills Today's Challenges in the Canadian Workplace  Organizations are made up of individual groups and the entire organizational structure o Each level has a unique role that must be fulfilled at the workplace o Each level is constructed/dependent on the previous level o Each level has challenges that may affect how the levels above/below operate  Basic OB model: 1. individual level, 2. group level, 3. organization system level Challenges at the Individual Level:  Managers and employees need to learn how to deal with others (different from themselves) o Dimensions such as personality, perception, values, and attitudes  Individuals have different levels of job satisfaction/motivation o This affects the how managers manage employees  The greatest issue is how to behave ethically when facing competition Individual Differences:  People enter organizations with a unique behaviour, perception, values, and attitude o It is difficult for an organization to change these characteristics of an employee COMM 292 – Management and Organizational Behaviour Job Satisfaction:  Employees are demanding satisfaction out of their jobs o Higher satisfied employees leads to higher productivity (basic assumption)  Researchers believe employees want challenges and intrinsic rewards from their work  Job satisfaction is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover o This costs organizations considerable amounts of money annually Motivation:  Only 24% of Canadian employees were recognized to a great extent for work well done Empowerment:  In many organizations employees have become associates and teammates o Employees are becoming more a part and important of businesses o Employees' roles within many organizations have grown  Self-managed teams, instead of employees and managers, have become a new trend o Teamwork and employee responsibility are essential  Empowerment: giving employees responsibility for what they do o Managers are beginning to learn how to give up power o Employees are learning to take responsibility and make appropriate decisions Behaving Ethically:  Cutbacks and expectations of increasing worker productivity suffer consequences o Employees cut corners, break rules, engage in questionable practices etc.  Ethics: the study of moral values and principles that guide behaviour, and inform us whether actions are right or wrong o Ethical principles help/guide us to do the right thing  Individuals that have ethical values, and organizations that encourage make right decisions Challenging at the Group Level:  People's behaviour differs when they are in a group to when they are alone o Behaviour of a group is more than the sum total of individuals acting on their own  Organizations with more teamwork develop employees with greater intrapersonal skills o Learning to work with people from different backgrounds is now more important Working with Others:  A foundation for a high-quality work force includes communications, problem solving, critical thinking, learning continuously, and the ability to work with others o A positive attitude/behaviour and taking responsibility for actions are also key o Team building and priority management are essential for small/mid-sized businesses Workforce Diversity:  Adapting to different people is a broad based challenge facing organizations  Workforce diversity: the mix of people in organizations (gender, race, age, education etc.) o More organizations are moving towards workforce diversity  Different generations working side by side bring together different values and experiences COMM 292 – Management and Organizational Behaviour  Workforce diversity has spread in different countries through different ways o The increase in women in the workforce has changed the workforce diversity o European Union has opened up borders and allowed for more diverse organizations  Employees don't set aside cultural values and lifestyle preferences when at work o It is challenging for organizations to accommodate these diverse needs and lifestyles  Different employees have different preferences, organizations must find the happy medium  Managers need to shift their philosophy to treat each employee uniquely o They must respond to differences to ensure employee retention and productivity o Includes diversity training and revising benefit programs (family friendly etc.)  Diversity can increase creativity and innovation in organizations o Improves decision making by providing different perspectives on problems o Diversity that is not well managed can lead to higher turnover and conflicts Challenges at the Organizational Level:  The design of an organization has an impact on how effective an organization is o Change may be in order if an organization's design in not effective  Canadian businesses now face greater competition from the global economy o The structure of the workplace is becoming more and more challenging The Use of Temporary (Contingent) Employees:  Part time or temporary employees are a growing part of the overall workforce o Full-time/permanent jobs have been downsized by millions over the years  Some contingent employees prefer part-time/temporary to do other things (children etc.)  Contingent employees don't identify with the organization or display commitment o Temporary workers lack benefits and are also paid less  Organizations are challenged with motivating temporary employees to feel more connected Improving Quality and Productivity:  Increased competition forces managers to reduce costs and increase production quality  Organizations are productive if goals are achieved and costs are minimized  Productivity: a concern for both effectiveness and efficiency o Effectiveness: the achievement of goals o Efficiency: the ratio of effective work input to output required to produce the work Developing Effective Employees:  Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB): behaviour that is not part of an employee's job requirements, but that promotes the effective functioning of an organization o Employees that are striving and providing performance beyond expectations o Making constructive comments, being flexible, volunteering extra time etc.  Organizations want and need employe
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