Textbook Notes (362,789)
Canada (158,053)
Commerce (379)
COMM 292 (97)
Chapter 2

COMM 292: Chapter 2

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Chapter 2 Perception Defined  Perception: how individuals organize/interpret their impressions in different environments o Perception can be much different from the objective reality  People's behaviour is based on perception of reality, not on reality itself o The world that is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important Factors Influencing Perception The Perceiver:  Perceiver: an individual that looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he/she sees o The interpretation is heavily influenced by the perceiver's personal characteristics o Characteristics include attitude, personality, motives, interests, experiences etc.  All shape the way we perceive an event The Target:  A target's characteristics also affect what is perceived by the target o Motions, sounds, size and other characteristics of a target shape how they are seen o The relationship of a target to its background also influences perception The Situation:  The context (time, location, light etc.) we see objects or events is also important o The situation may change and therefore the perception  Neither the perceiver nor the target have changed Perceptual Errors  Techniques have been developed to better manage perceiving/interpreting other's actions o Make accurate perceptions rapidly and provide valid data for making predictions o There are errors that distort the perception process Attribution Theory:  Attribution theory: judging people differently based on the meaning given to behaviour o We observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual and make sense of it o Cause is internal: whether the individual is responsible for the behaviour  Behaviour is believed to be resulting the person o Cause is external: whether something outside the individual caused the behaviour  Behaviour is believed to result from outside causes Distinctiveness:  Distinctiveness: whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations o External attribution: behaviour is unusual o Internally caused: behaviour is not unusual Consensus:  Consensus: how an individual's behaviour compares with others in the same situation COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour o If an individual responds like everyone else, their behaviour shows consensus  If consensus is high, the wrong doing or odd would be attributed externally Consistency:  Consistency: whether an individual has been acting in the same way over time How Attributions Get Distorted:  There are usually errors or biases that distort attributions  Fundamental attribution error: when we judge the behaviour of others, we tend to overestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal, or personal factors  Self-serving bias: attribute one's own success to internal factors and failure to external o Individuals tend to overestimate their own good behaviour and underestimate others Selective Perception:  Characteristics that make a person/object stand will change how they are perceived o More likely to notice objects that you own or that look familiar  Selective perception: selective interpretation of what is seen based on backgrounds etc. o Allows us to speed-read others, but has risks of inaccurate conclusions Halo Effect:  Halo effect: when we draw general impressions of people based on one characteristic o Based on intelligence, likeability, appearance and others  A single trait influences the overall impression of the person being judged Contrast Effect:  Contrast effect: reaction of one person is influenced by other people recently encountered o Most often we do not evaluate a person in isolation (job interviews etc.) Projection:  Projection: attributing one's own characteristics to other people o Judging others based on the fact that they are similar to us  When people observe others similar to themselves, their perception is naturally corrected Stereotyping:  Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which they belong o Generalizations allow us to simplify decisions o Heuristics: judgment shortcuts in decision making  Stereotypes may only provide a little bit of truth when applied to an individual o Can lead to negative reactions, such as prejudice Prejudice:  Prejudice: an unfounded dislike of a person/group based on their belonging to a group o Dislike based on religion, state, ethnicity etc. o Can lead to negative consequences in the workplace, such as discrimination COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Why Do Perception and Judgment Matter?  People in organizations are always judging each other (interviews, workplace etc.) o Interviewers make perceptual judgments during the interview o Negative info that arises in interviews is more heavily weighted than if it arises later  An employee's future is closely tied to appraisal (promotions, pay raises, stability etc.)  Evaluator's perception of good/bad has a large impact on organizational decision making o Often employees that are promoted are similar to their managers Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:  People will attempt to validate their perceptions, even when perceptions are faulty o Important when we consider performance expectations on the job  Self-fulfilling prophecy: a person will behave based on how they are perceived by others Personality What is Personality?  Concept describing the growth and development of a person's psychological system o Looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts  Personality: patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts and interacts with others Measuring Personality:  Researchers have found personality tests are useful in hiring decisions o Personality test scores help forecast the best candidates and manage employees  Commonly measured through self-report surveys in which people rate themselves o The respondents might lie or practise impression management o Difficult to determine the accuracy of these reports (several variations) o Research suggests that observer ratings are better predictions of success on the job Personality Determinants:  Personality is a result of both nature (hereditary), nurture (environment) and situations o Situation also in incorporated into the development of personality Heredity:  Heredity: factors that were determined at conception (birth) o Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament etc.  Your parent' biological, physiological and inherent psychological makeup  Traits such as shyness, fear and distress are likely caused by genetic characteristics  Genetics explain up to 50% of the personality, 30% of occupational/leisure interests o Personalities does change over time (conscientiousness tends to increase with age) Personality Traits:  Personality traits: enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behaviour o More consistent the characteristic the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Big Five Personality Model identify/clarify traits COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types  E/I measures where we direct our energy when dealing with people and things o Extraverted: outgoing, sociable and assertive o Introverted: quiet and shy  S/N dimensions looks at how we process information o Sensing: practical and prefer routine and order o Intuitive: rely on unconscious process and look at the big picture o Thinking: reason and logic to handle problems o Feeling: rely on their personal values and emotions o Judging: want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured o Perceiving: flexible and spontaneous  INTJs: visionaries that have original minds/great drive for their own ideas and purposes  ESTJs: organizers that are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive and are business naturals  ENTPs: conceptualisers that are innovative, individualistic, versatile, entrepreneurial  Forces people into one category or the other, may not be very accurate, more of a guidance Big Five Personality Model:  Five basic personality dimensions underlie all others and encompass human variation  Extraversion: person's comfort level with relationships (sociable, talkative, and assertive)  Agreeable: person's propensity to defer to others (good-natured, cooperative and trusting)  Conscientiousness: measure of reliability (responsible, dependable, goal oriented)  Emotional stability: person's ability to withstand stress (calm, self-confident, and secure)  Openness to experience: person's range of interests and fascin
More Less

Related notes for COMM 292

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.