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Chapter 6

COMM 292: Chapter 6

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University of British Columbia
COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292: Observational Business Chapter 6 Teams vs. Groups: What's the Difference?  Group: two or more people with a common relationship (no productivity needed)  Team: small number of people that work towards a common objective (accountable) o Share leadership, individually accountable, purpose or mission, problem solving etc. Why Have Teams Become So Popular?  Teams have greater flexibility compared to traditional departments/structures  Teams have the potential to be more productive, but must have the key characteristics o More motivation, quickly assembly, deploy, refocus and disband Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams:  5-12 employees from the same department who meet a once a few hours a week o Discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment o Also can be planning teams, task forces or committees organized to get tasks done  Employees share ideas or suggestions, but do not get to implement suggested actions Self-Managed Teams:  10-12 employees who take on many responsibilities of their former managers o Includes planning/scheduling of work, assigning tasks, taking action etc.  Fully self-managed have their own members/leader and evaluate each other  Self-managed teams often perform better than teams with formally appointed leaders  Effectiveness of the team depends on the makeup, tasks being done and reward structure Cross-Functional Teams:  Group of employees from different levels and areas that work to accomplish tasks o Task force: a temporary cross-functional team o Committee: group composed of members from different departments  Allows employees to exchange info, develop new ideas, solve problems and coordinate Skunkworks:  Cross-functional teams that develop to create new products or work on complex problems  Gives teams the ability to work on projects without being watched by the organization Virtual Teams:  Uses computers to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a goal o Most teams interact virtually by sharing links, documents, video conferencing etc.  Virtual teams do not have physical interaction and are less satisfied o It is difficult to build trust, when team members have not met in person o Virtual teams build trust through the tone or attitude of the conversations COMM 292: Observational Business From Individual to Team Member Roles:  A set of expected behaviours of a person in a given position in a social unit Role Conflict:  Role expectations: how others believe a person should act in a given situation  Role conflict: one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another role o Creates internal tension and frustration Role Ambiguity:  When a person is unclear about the expectations of his or her role o Leads to confusion, stress, and bad feelings  Role overload/underload: too much or too little is expected of someone Norms:  Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group's members o Act as a means of influencing the behaviour of the group  Common social norms: performance, appearance, allocation of resources The How and Why of Norms:  Norms develop gradually as group members become acquainted with function o Explicit statements: instructions from the group's powerful member establishes norms o Critical events: things that have happened in the past that change the group's dynamic o Primacy: first behaviour pattern that emerges in a group often sets team expectations o Carry-over behaviour: expectations brought with members from other groups/teams  Norms facilitate the group's survival, increases predictability of group members' behaviour, reduces embarrassing interpersonal problems for group members and creates identity Conformity:  Adjusting one's behaviour with the norms of the group o Impacts members by forcing them to act in a way consistent with other members  Conformity shows why some groups are more prone to anti-social behaviour than others o Anti-social groups may lead to individuals being anti-social on their own time Stages of Group and Team Development The Five-Stage Model:  Shows how individuals move from being independent to working interpedently as a group  Stage 1 Forming: first stage in a group development, characterized by much uncertainty o Testing the behaviour of the group and starting to become a team  Stage 2 Storming: group development, characterized by intragroup conflict o Conflict of ideas, leadership, and planning  Stage 3 Norming: development characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness o Conflict resolution, developing relationships, and solidified structure  Stage 4 Performing: development when the group is fully functional COMM 292: Observational Business o Team comes together and starts task progress (understanding tasks at hand)  Stage 5 Adjourning: when temporary groups' attention is directed to wrapping up activities The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model:  Temporary groups often do not follow the five-stage model and have different actions Phase 1:  First meeting creates a framework of behaviour and assumptions for the team  During inertia teams tend to stand still/become locked into a fix course of action (phase 1) o Usually team members do not complete assigned tasks or work relatively slow Phase 2:  Moves out of the inertia stage and recognizes that work needs to be completed o Usually at the halfway point of the teams timeline (halfway to the deadline) o Transition from phase 1 to 2, drops old patterns and the group adopts new ones  The team’s productivity bursts and there is a last chance burst to finish all work at the end Applying the Punctuated-Equilibrium Model:  Characterizes deadline-oriented teams in which there are stages of low/high productivity  Forming and norming, the lower performing, storming, high performing then adjourning Creating Effective Teams  Effective team characteristics: resources, team composition, work design and team process  Model of team effectiveness is a generalization and cannot be applied to all teams o Assumes that teamwork is preferable to individual work in a given circumstance Context:  Teams need to manage support, and organize structure that supports teamwork  Adequate resources, effective leadership, climate of trust of performance evaluation are key Adequate resources:  Teams rely on resources from outside the team to complete tasks and meet goals o Teams rely on support from the organization (technology, encouragement, info etc.) o Critical for teams to receive necessary support from organizations to achieve goals Leadership and Structure:  Leaders must help groups set direction, bond, work effectively, receive support and coach o Help team members find rolls and integrate individual skills into team plans  Managers are still important in self-managed teams as they manage outside circumstances  Multi-team system: different teams in the same system that work toward a common goal o Managers act as coordinators between the different teams (increased efficiency) Climate of Trust:  Trust reduces the need to monitor behaviour, and help members believe in the group  Trusting groups will allow for members to take more risks and e
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