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Chapter 4

COMM 292: Chapter 4

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University of British Columbia
COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Chapter 4 What is Motivation?  Motivation: the intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal  Intensity: how hard a person tries o High intensity is unlikely to be beneficial unless it is channeled correctly  Effort requires persistence (measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort)  Theory X: suggests that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals o Suggests that people are extrinsically motivated  Theory Y: suggests that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives o Suggests that people are intrinsically motivated  Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation o The level of motivation differs both among individuals and within individual at different times  Intrinsic motivators: a person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction  Extrinsic motivators: motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses and other tangible rewards  Punishment by Rewards: suggests that if the right environment is provided, people will be motivated Needs Theories of Motivation  Needs theories: describes the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals  Process theories: help us understand the actual ways in which we and other can be motivated  Needs theories have been criticized for not holding up to scientific review o The theories represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown o Managers still use these theories and terminology in explaining employee motivation Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory:  A hierarchy of five needs - psychological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization - in which as soon as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant o Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs o Safety: includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm o Social: includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship o Esteem: self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition and attention o Self-actualization: growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment  No need is ever fully met, but substantially satisfies allows for advancement o To satisfy someone, you must determine what level of the hierarchy the are currently present  Higher order needs are satisfied internally, while lower order externally ERG Theory: COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour  Version of Maslow's hierarchy that includes three core needs: existence, relatedness and growth  Believed that an individual could be focused on all three levels at once Motivation-Hygiene Theory:  Relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction  Achievements, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth are related to job satisfaction o People that felt good about work, attributed these characteristics to themselves  Extrinsic factors like policies, administration, supervision etc. are related to dissatisfaction o People that are dissatisfied, they attribute the extrinsic factors  Herzberg proposed satisfaction/no satisfaction and dissatisfaction/no dissatisfaction  Factors of job satisfaction (motivators) are different factors of dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) o Hygiene factors: policy, salary, admin, supervision, interpersonal relations etc.  When these factors are satisfied, people will not be dissatisfied  Motivation is emphasized through achievement, recognition, responsibility and growth  The procedures used in the theory are limited, as it attends to blaming/attributing certain characteristics  The reliability of the theory is questionable as there may have been tainted results  No theory was actually created, and no measure of satisfaction was used  The theory ignores previous research such as situational variables McClelland's Theory of Needs:  Achievement, power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation  Achievement: drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed o People striving to do things better, seeking more responsibility, challenging tasks o High probability tasks, that are not too easy, or too hard, but that can be accomplished o More focused on individual performance rather than the firm or organization  Power: need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise o Desire to impact others and have control over situations and others o Tend to be more competitive and focused on status/prestige rather than effective performance  Affiliation: desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships o Strive for friendly relationships rather than competitive/high understanding relationships  The best managers tend to have a high need for power and low need for affiliation Summarizing Needs Theories:  Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation  There are different needs that must be met before other needs can be considered Process Theories of Motivation: Expectancy Theory: COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour  Individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive Effort-Performance Relationship:  Expectancy: the belief that effort is related to performance  Individual perception of how probably it is that a given effort will lead to good performance  Employee expectancy is influenced by self-esteem, previous success, help from supervisors, information and proper materials/equipment Performance-Rewards Relationship:  Instrumentality: the belief that performance is related to rewards o Negative instrumentality indicated that high performance reduces the chances of a desired outcome o 0 instrumentality indicates no relationship between performance and receiving the desired outcome  Individual perception of whether performing at a given level will lead to a desired outcome o Whether the performance will be acknowledge by those who allocate rewards Rewards-Personal Goals Relationship:  Valence: the value or importance an individual places on rewards o Ranges from -1(very undesirable reward) to +1(very desirable reward)  Degree to which organizational rewards satisfy goals/needs and attractiveness of potential rewards  Managers often do not have the resources to reward, or reward the wrong things for accomplishments Expectancy Theory in the Workplace:  Research of the theory, even in cross-cultural settings have supported the expectancy theory Goal-Setting Theory:  Intentions of working toward a goal are a major source of work motivation o Goals tell employees what needs to be done and with how much effort  Some firms leave goal setting up to managers, although goals may then not be set  Management by objective (MBO): managers and employees jointly set performance goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable o Progress on goals is often reviewed and rewards are allocated on the basis of the progress How Does Goal Setting Motivate?  Goals indicate where individuals should direct their efforts when prioritizing  Goals suggest how much effort an individual should put into a given task  Goals create persistence so effort will be spent on a task over time  Goals will help people develop plans for achieving specific goals COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour  All effective goals must include the acronym SMART o Specific: individuals know exactly what is to be achieved o M easurable: the goals proposed can be tracked and reviewed o Attainable: goals, even if difficult, are reasonable and achievable o Results-Oriented: goals should support the vision of the organization o Time-Bound: goals are to be achieved within a stated time Research Findings: The Effect of Goal Setting  Specific goals increase performance, under certain conditions o Specific goals can be linked to poorer performance in complex tasks (not focused on alternatives)  Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals o This does not work when employees believe the goals are unattainable  Feedback leads to higher performance o Lets people know how they are doing, and if necessary how to adjust effort, direction etc.  Goals are equally effective whether anticipatively set, assigned, or self-set o Employees are more likely to accept goals if they are anticipatively set  Goal commitment and financial incentive affect whether goals are achieved o Financial incentives can lower commitment to difficult goals (leads to problems)  The implication of goal setting is that achievement will result in intrinsic satisfaction Self-Efficacy Theory:  Refers to an individual's belief that he/she is capable of performing a task o Higher self-efficacy means the more confidence in the ability to succeed in a task  Respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation  Setting difficult goals for people communicates confidence in th
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