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Ch 3 - Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace.docx

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COMM 292
Leah Sheppard

Values, Attitudes, and Diversity in the Workplace Chapter 3 VALUES  Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence  Judgmental element – carry an individual‟s ideas as to what is right, good or desirable  Influence attitudes and behavior  Stable and enduring  Formed in early years – input from parents, teachers, peers (Milton) Rokeach‟s Value Survey Two sets containing 18 individual value items:  Terminal values – goals that one would like to achieve in their lifetime o Ex. a financially and mentally rewarding job  Instrumental values – preferable ways of behaving o Means for achieving terminal values o Ex. ambition  People in the same occupation or categories usually hold similar values  Differences in values = difficult when different groups have to negotiate with each other (Kent) Hodgson‟s General Moral Principles  Ethics – study of moral values or principles that guide our behavior and inform us whether actions are right or wrong o Related to moral judgments – right vs. wrong  Lack of moral roots = business scandals  “The Magnificent Seven” – universal values that managers use to make principles, appropriate, and defensible decisions ASSESSING CULTURAL VALUES Hofstede‟s Framework for Assessing Cultures – found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture  Power distance – extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally o High rating: large inequalities of power and wealth exist and are tolerated  Ex. class or caste system cultures o Low rating: equality and opportunity are important to this culture  Individualism vs. collectivism – degree to which people prefer to act as individuals than as members of a group o High: believe in individual rights above all else o Low (collectivism): emphasizes tight social framework – expect others in groups to look after and protect them  Masculinity – degree to which the culture favours traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power and control o characterized by assertiveness and materialism o High: separate roles for men and women, men being more dominant  Femininity – culture sees less differentiation between female and male roles o High: treats women as the equals of men in all aspects  Uncertainty avoidance – degree to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them o Structured > Unstructured o High: increased level of anxiety around uncertainty; use laws and controls to reduce uncertainty o Low: less rule-oriented, take more risks, more readily accept change  Long-term orientation – long term devotion to traditional values o Value virtues like thrift and persistence that are oriented to future rewards  Short-term orientation – value virtues related to the past and present  Criticisms o More than 30 years old o Based only on one company, IBM o Non-transparent methodology The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures  Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program – investigation of leadership and national culture  Assertiveness – extent to which people are encouraged to be tough, confrontational, assertive and competitive vs. modest and tender  Future orientation – extent to which future-oriented behavior is rewarded o Planning, investing in the future and delaying gratification  Gender differentiation – extend to which gender role differences are maximized  Uncertainty avoidance – society‟s reliance on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events  Power distance – extent to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared  Individualism/Collectivism – extent to which individuals are encouraged by institutions to be integrated into groups within organizations and society  In-group collectivism – extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups (family, friends, company of employment)  Performance orientation – extent to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence  Humane orientation – extent to which a society encourages one to be fair, altruistic, generous, caring and kind to others VALUES IN THE CANADIAN WORKPLACE Generational Differences  The Elders (over 60) o Playing by the rules o Core values: order, authority, discipline and Judeo-Christian moral code, and the Golden Rule  Baby Boomers (1940‟s-1960‟s) o Influenced by the civil rights and women‟s movements, the Beatles, the Vietnam War, and baby-boom competition o Spoiled, hedonistic, rebellious group o Autonomous rebels, anxious communitarians, connected enthusiasts, disengaged Darwinists: 4 groups with fragmented views o Disengaged Darwinists: angry, intimidated by change, anxious about professional and financial future o Other 3: Rejection of authority, skepticism regarding motives of big businesses and the government, strong concern for environment, strong desire for equality  Generation X (1960‟s-1980‟s) o Shaped by globalization, two-career parents, MTV, AIDS, and computers o Value flexibility, life options, achievement of job satisfaction o Skeptical of authority, enjoy team-oriented work o Willing to make personal sacrifices for the sake of their employer 5 Tribes:  Thrill-seeking materialists – desire money, material possessions and recognition, respect and admiration  Aimless dependents – seek financial independence, security, and stability  Social hedonists – experience-seeking, committed to their own pleasure and seek immediate gratification  New Aquarians – experience-seeking, egalitarian and ecologically minded  Autonomous post-materialists – seek personal autonomy, self-fulfillment; concerned re: human rights  The Next Generation / Netters/ Nexters / Millennials / Generation Y (1970‟s-2000‟s) o Grew up during prosperous times o High expectations o Seek meaning in their work o Life goals: $$ and fame-oriented o At ease with diversity o Takes technology for granted o Questioning, socially conscious, entrepreneurial & needy  The Generations Meet in the Workplace o Societal values of the period in which they grew up  can explain and predict behavior o Currently: Baby Boomers dominate workplace o “Play by the rules” elders are getting replaced by egalitarian Boomers (who dislike the command and control rules that their parents imposed on them; workaholics) o Generation X – comfortable in adapting, also want more experience, not in awe of authority; not interested in copying workaholic behavior of their parents o Generation Y – change the face of the workplace – mastered a communication and info system that prev. generations didn‟t understand Cultural Differences  Francophone and Anglophone Values (English- vs. French-speaking) o Francophones – collectivist, group-oriented, greater need for achievement  Concerned more about interpersonal aspects of the workplace (vs. task competence)  More committed to their work organizations  Not risk takers – want to reduce ambiguity and uncertainty  MBTI – Introverted, sensing, thinking, judging o Anglophones – individualistic, more risk taking  MBTI – Intuitive, feeling, perceiving
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