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Ch 4 - Theories of Motivation.docx

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Department
Commerce
Course
COMM 292
Professor
Leah Sheppard
Semester
Winter

Description
Theories of Motivation Chapter 4 What is motivation?  Motivation – intensity, direction and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal o Intensity – how hard a person tries o Persistence – how long a person can maintain his/her effort o Not a personal trait o Result of the interaction of the individual and the situation o Level of motivation varies among and within individuals  Theory X – Assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it and must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals o Extrinsic motivators – motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards o  Theory Y – Assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives o Intrinsic motivators – a person’s internal desire to do something, due to things like interest, challenge and personal satisfaction Needs Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant  Physiological – hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, other bodily needs – lower order needs  Safety – security, protection from physical and emotional harm – lower order  Social – affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship – higher order  Esteem – internal esteem factors (self respect, autonomy, achievement) & external esteem factors (status, recognition, attention) – higher order  Self-Actualization – growth, achieving one’s potential, self-fulfillment – drive to become what one is capable of becoming – higher order  A substantially (not fully) satisfied need no longer motivates  Higher order needs – satisfied internally  Lower order needs – satisfied externally ERG Theory – similar to Maslow’s but with empirical research: Three Groups of Core Needs  Existence – physiological and safety needs  Relatedness – social and status needs  Growth – esteem and self actualization needs  Clayton Alderfer – did not assume that these needs existed in a rigid hierarchy Motivation-Hygiene Theory  Relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction  Frederick Herzberg  Intrinsic – achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth  Extrinsic – company policy, administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, work conditions  Opposite of satisfaction = No Satisfaction ≠ Dissatisfaction  Factors leading to job satisfaction (motivators) are separate from those that lead to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) Criticism: o Procedure limited by methodology o Reliability of methodology is questionable o Did not really produce a theory of motivation – provides an explanation of job satisfaction instead o No overall measure of satisfaction was used o Inconsistent with previous research McClelland’s Theory of Needs  Need for achievement (nAch) – drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to succeed o High achievers – different because they desire to do things better; seek situations where they can attain personal responsibility for finding solutions; dislike succeeding by change; set moderately challenging goals  Need for power (nPow) – make other behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise o Desire to have impact, to be influential, to control others, strive for influence over others, prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations, more concerned with prestige then with effective performance  Need for affiliation (nAff) – desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships o Strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones, desire relationships that involve mutual understanding Summarizing Needs Theory  Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation  See page 136  Process Theory of Motivation Expectancy Theory  Employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort if they believe that… o The effort will lead to good performance o That good performance will lead to organizational rewards (bonus, salary increase, promotion) o That the rewards will satisfy his/her personal goals  Focuses on three relationships – expectancy, instrumentality, valence Effort-Performance Relationship o Expectancy – belief that effort is related to performance o How probable it is that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to food performace o Influenced by: self-esteem, previous success, help from supervisors and subordinates, information, proper materials and equipment o Range: 0 – 1 Performance-Rewards Relationship o Instrumentality – belief that performance is related to rewards o Whether performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of desired outcome o Range: -1 – 1  Negative – high performance reduces that changes of getting desired outcome  0 – no relationship between performance and desired outcome Rewards-Personal Goals Relationships o Valence – belief that performance is related to rewards o Degree to which org. rewards satisfy and individual’s personal goals or needs o Problem: managers incorrectly assume that all employees want the same thing o Range: -1 – 1  Goal-Setting Theory  Goal – what an individual is trying to accomplish; the object or aim of an action o Tells an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended  Management by objectives program – approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviews, and rewards are allocated on the basis of this progress How does goal setting motivate? o Goals direct attention when choosing among things to do o Goals regulate effort – how much effort one should put into a given task o Goals increase persistence – the effort spent on a task over time; when overcoming obstacles o Goals encourage the development of strategies and action plans In order for goals to be effective, they should be SMART: o Specific – know exactly what needs to be achieved o Measurable – can be tracked and reviewed o Attainable o Results-oriented – should support the vision of the org. o Time-bound Effects of Goal Setting o Increase performance under certain conditions – not in complex tasks o Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals – relationship does not hold when employees view the goal as impossible, and not just difficult o Feedback leads to higher performance – encourages one to adjust their direction, effort and action plans o Equally effective whether participatively set, assigned or self-set o
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