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Chapter 7

COMM 292: Chapter 7

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COMM 292
Angela Kelleher

COMM 292: Observational Behaviour Chapter 7 The Communication Process  Transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people  The sender establishes the message, encodes the message and chooses the channel in which to send it  The receiver decodes the message and provides feedback to the sender o Communication problems happened when there is a disruption during these processes o The process is affected by the sender's perception of the receiver and visa-versa Encoding and Decoding:  Encoded: converting a message to a symbolic form  Decoded: interpreting a sender's message  Skill, attitudes, knowledge and socio-cultural system affect message encoding and decoding  Communicative success includes speaking, listening, and reasoning skills o Interactions with others are affected by our attitudes, values and beliefs  Messages sent/received by people of equal rank are interpreted different than if received by someone else The Message:  What is communicated, the actual physical product from the source after it is encoded o Affected by the code, or group of symbols, we use to transfer meaning, the message itself, and the decision that we make in selecting and arranging both codes and content  Messages may not always encapsulate what one or both parties intended/feel The Channel:  The medium through which a message travels o Selected by the source who must determine which channel is formal and which is informal o Formal channels are established by organizations and transmit messages relating to the job o Informal channels are forms such as personal/social messages  Communication apprehension: undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication or both  Some channels are rich in the ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback and be very personal  Channel richness: amount of info that can be transmitted during a communication episode  The frequency of the messages also determines the channel in which messages are sent o Non-routine messages are more effective through rich channels  Managers find it easier to deliver bad news through emails, and these messages are delivered more accurately through this channel The Feedback Loop: COMM 292: Observational Behaviour  The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings o The receiver needs to give feedback and the sender needs to check it  If the sender or receiver fails to provide feedback the communication becomes one-way o Two-way communication involves both talking and listening The Context:  All communication takes place within a context o The context prevents different expectations (ex. The workplace, or the bus stop)  Informal communication can look informal and therefore unprofessional (viewed negatively) o Formal communication can make others feel uncomfortable  It is important to consider the context in both encoding the message and choosing the channel Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering:  A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourable by the receiver o As information is passed on it needs to be synthesized, and filter out irrelevant information o Personal interest affects what is filtered, how things are synthesized, what is important  The size and levels of an organization affect how information is filtered Selective Perception:  Receivers process selectively what they see/hear based on their needs, motivation, experience, background and other personal characteristics o Also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them Defensiveness:  When people feel they are being threatened they tend to react in ways to reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding o Engage is behaviours such as verbally attacking others, making sarcastic remarks, being overly judgmental and questioning others' motives Information Overload:  State of having more information than one can process o Employees suffer from having too much information (ex. Email, IM, faxes, phone calls, etc.) Language:  Age, education and cultural backgrounds influence the language we use and definitions of words COMM 292: Observational Behaviour o Different departments develop their own jargon, or technical language  Senders often assume the language they use means the same to the receiver as it does to them Communicating Under Stress:  While under stress, it is often the most difficult time to communicate o Speak clearly: be direct about what you want to say and avoid hiding behind words o Be aware of the nonverbal part of communicating: tone, facial expression, body language o Think carefully about how you state things: better to be restrained that to offend the receiver Organizational Communication Direction of Communication:  Communication can flow downward, upward and laterally in organizations  Downward: communication flows from one level of an organization to a lower one o Managers communicating with employees, giving orders and creating rules/regulation o Managers must explain why decisions are made  Upward: communication flows to a higher level in the organization o Used to prov
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