Textbook Notes (367,876)
Canada (161,461)
Commerce (379)
COMM 292 (97)
Chapter 13

COMM 292: Chapter 13

7 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Commerce
Course
COMM 292
Professor
Angela Kelleher
Semester
Winter

Description
COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour Chapter 13 What Is Organizational Structure?  How job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated  There are usually flat and pyramidal organizational structures Work Specialization:  The degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs (division of labour) o Jobs are broken down into steps and a person specializes in one of the steps o Increases efficiency and productivity, and encourages special inventions/innovations o Can lead to boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, high turnover Individual Responses to Work Specialization:  Generally contributes to higher employee productivity but lower job satisfaction  There diminishing marginal returns that is associated with specializing for too long in one task Departmentalization:  Basis on which jobs are grouped together o Departments protect their own and do not interact with other departments o This can lead to a narrow vision with respect to organizational goals Functional Departmentalization:  Activities are most often grouped by the types of functions that are performed  Increased efficiency from grouping people of the same common skills together into one unit Product Departmentalization:  Tasks can also be departmentalized by the type of product the organization produces o Creates an increased accountability for product performance o All activities are related to a specific product line are under the direction of one manager Geographic Departmentalization:  Departmentalization can also be bases on geographic location or territory o Can be divided regionally (B.C., Ontario, Atlantic Canada, West, etc.) o Best when customers are in one geographic location with similar needs or wants Process Departmentalization:  Companies organize departments based on the processing that occurs o Ex. Finishing, inspecting, packaging, shipping, etc. o Can be used for processing customers, as well as products Customer Departmentalization: COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour  Departmentalization can be categorized on the basis of particular types of customers (target markets) o Specific departments can provide specialized services to different customers  Service retail, wholesale, customer service, technical support o Customer needs can be best met through specialized departments Organizational Variety in Departmentalization:  Large organizations change their departmentalization to reflect new needs or emphases o Many organizations have a greater emphasis to customer departmentalization o Rigid/functional departmentalization is being increasingly complemented by teams that cross over traditional departmental lines  As tasks have become more complex and more diverse skills are needed to complete the tasks, managers turn to cross-functional teams o One step further is turning departments into separate divisions that are separate profit centres o Each division sets it own strategic goals and plans to accomplish them Chain of Command:  The continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest level and clarifies who reports to whom o Tells employees who to go to if they have a problem and who they report to  Delegation: assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific duties, allowing the employee to make some of the decisions o Employees can become empowered to make decisions that were previously for managers  Self-managed and cross-functional teams have decreased the relevance of chain-of- command Span of Control:  The number of employees that report to a manager  Determined by the number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively direct o The wider of larger the span the more efficient the organization  At some point managers manage too many employees and it becomes less efficient  Employee performance suffers as managers have limited time to support individuals  Narrow spans are more expensive, they make communication complex, and are sometimes overly tight for supervision and lack employee autonomy Individual Responses to Span of Control:  There is no research to show that there is a best type of span of control o Each employee is different and will prefer different things compared to the next employee Centralization and Decentralization: COMM 292: Organizational Behaviour  Centralization: degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization o Top managers or executives make decisions without input from lower-level employees  Decentralization: degree to which decision making is distributed to lower-level employees o Action can be taken more quickly to solve problems o More people provide input for decisions, and are closer to the management levels Individual Responses to Centralization:  Decision making is positively related to job satisfaction o Decentralization is strongest with employees who have low self-esteem  Employees are not held solely responsible for decision outcomes Formalization:  The degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized o Highly formalized jobs have explicit job descriptions and lots of organization rules o Clearly defined procedures covering work processes in the organization  Low formalization means employees have freedom to exercise discretion in their work o The greater the standardization, the less input the employee has into their own work o Standardization eliminates the possibility of employees engaging in alternative behaviours Mechanistic and Organic Organizations:  Mechanistic model: structure characterized by high specialization, rigid departmentalization, a clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, a limited information network, and centralization o Includes little participation by lower-level members in decision making processes o Adopted by government bureaucracies  Organic model: structure that is flat, uses cross-functional and cross-hierarchical teams, possesses a comprehensive information network, has wide spans of control and low formalization o Involves high level of participation in decision making processes o Adopted by high-tech firms, individuals collaborating with each other, dynamic firms, etc. Individual Responses to Organizational Structure:  Organization with high levels of bureaucratic orientation have heavy reliance on higher authority o Prefer formalized and specific rules, and formal relationships with others on the job  Organizations with a low degree of bureaucratic orientation fit better with organic models  Cultural differences along with individual differences need to be considered o Included employee performance and satisfaction with each different model Tradition
More Less

Related notes for COMM 292

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit