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Chapter

Ch 11 - Leadership

14 Pages
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 292
Professor
Leah Sheppard

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Description
Leadership Are Managers and Leaders the Same? Management Leadership Engages in day to day caretaker activities: Formulates long term objectives for Maintains and allocates resources reforming the system: Plans strategy and tactics Exhibits supervisory behavior: Acts to Exhibits leading behavior: Acts to bring make others maintain standard job about change in others congruent with behavior long term objectives Administers subsystems within Innovates for the entire organization organizations Asks how and when to engage in standard Asks what and why to change standard practice practice Acts within established culture Creates vision and meaning for the org. Uses transactional influence: Induces Uses transformational influence: Induces compliance in manifest behavior using change in values, attitudes, behavior using rewards, sanctions, formal authority personal examples and expertise Relies on control strategies to get things Uses empowering strategies to make done by subordinates followers internalize values Status quo supporter and stabilizer Status quo challenger and change creator LEADERSHIP THEORIES Leadership as Supervision Trait Theories: Are leaders different from others?  Trait theories of leadership – theories that propose traits – personality, social, physical, or intellectual – differentiate leaders from non-leaders  Usually described in terms such as charismatic, enthusiastic, courageous  Organize traits around the Big Five Personality Model  Ambition and energy  extraversion o Extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders o Also, its more strongly related to leader emergence then to leader effectiveness  Conscientiousness and openness to experience  Showed strong relation to leadership, but not as strong as extraversion  Agreeableness and emotional stability  does not offer help in predicting leadership  Leaders who are extraverted, conscientious (disciplined, keep commitments they make), and open (creative, flexible)  advantage  Conclusions: (1) Traits can predict leadership, using the Big Five Model & (2) Traits do a better job at predicting the emergence and appearance of leaders rather than the effectiveness Emotional Intelligence and Leadership  EI – another trait that may indicate effective leadership  Empathy – core component of EI o Sense others’ needs, listen to what followers say, able to read the reactions of others o Show care and concern  rewarded with loyalty Behavioral Thoeries: Do Leaders Behave in Particular Ways?  Theories that propose that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders  Tried to identify critical behavior determinants of leadership in hope that they could train people to be leaders  Main approaches consider 2 main dimensions by which managers can be characterized: attention to production and attention to people The Ohio State Studies  Initiating structure – extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals o Behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships and goals  Consideration – extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings o High consideration = shows concern for employees’ comfort, being, status, satisfaction The Michigan Studies  Employee oriented leaders – a leader who emphasizes interpersonal relations o Take personal interest in the needs of their subordinates o Accept individual differences  Production oriented leaders – a leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects of the job o Concerned with making sure the group accomplishes its tasks o Sees the group members as a means to that end The Leadership Grid  Aka The Managerial Grid  A two way dimensional grid outlining 81 different leadership styles  Based on styles of concern for people (y-axis) and concern for production (x-axis)  9 possible positions along each axis  81 different positions  Shows the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking with respect to how to get results from people, without focusing what the specific results are  Impoverished Management (1,1) o Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain org membership  Authority-Obedience Management (9,1) o Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree  Middle of the Road Management (5,5) o Adequate organizational performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level  Country Club Management (1,9) o Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo  Team Management (9,9) o Work accomplishment is from committed people who have a common stake in the org’s purpose  relationships of trust and respect Research Findings: Behavioral Theories  When subordinates experience a lot of pressure from deadlines or unclear tasks, people oriented leaders will increase employee satisfaction and performance  When the task is interesting/satisfying, there is less need for leaders to be people oriented  When its clear how to perform the task and what the goals are, leaders who are people oriented will increase employee satisfaction, while those who are task oriented will increase dissatisfaction.  When people don’t know what to do or don’t have the knowledge/skills to do the job, it’s more important for leaders to be task than people oriented.  Followers of leaders that are people oriented: more satisfied, more motivated, more respect for their leaders  Followers of leaders that are task oriented: higher levels of group and org productivity, receive more positive performance evaluations Contingency Theories: Does the situation matter?  Contingency/Situational theories – propose leadership effectiveness is dependent on the situation  The relationship between leadership style and effectiveness suggests that there is no one right style, but that style depends upon the situation the leader faces.  Variables: o Degree of structure in the task being performed o Quality of leader-member relations o Leader’s position power o Clarity of employee’s role o Group norms o Information availability o Employee acceptance of leader’s decisions o Employee maturity Fiedler Contingency Model  Proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with their followers and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence  Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire – determined whether individuals were primarily interested in good personal relations with co-workers or interested in productivity o Determined whether they were relationship oriented or task oriented  Assumption: One’s leadership style is fixed o If a situation called for a task oriented leader and the leader present was relationship oriented, then either the situation had to be changed or the leader removed.  Three contingency dimensions that define the key situational factors for determining leader effectiveness: o Leader-member relations – degree of confidence, trust and respect members have for their leader o Task structure – degree to which job assignments are procedurized (structure) o Position power – degree of influence a leader has over power-based activities (hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, raises)  The better the leader-member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has.  Task oriented leaders  perform best in situations of high and low control o High control – leader can get away with task orientation because the relationships are good o Low control (poor relations, ill-defined tasks, low influence) – task orientation is the only thing that makes it possible to get something done  Relationship leaders  perform best in situations of moderate control o Smooth over the way to getting things done Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory  Situational Leadership (SL) – a leadership theory that focuses on the readiness of followers  Views leader-follower relationship like that of a parent and child  Parents need to eventually give up control of their child as they become more mature and responsible, same with leaders  Identify four specific leader behaviors: o Telling (highly directive) – unable and unwilling follower – give clear and specific direction o Selling – unable and willing follower – high task orientation to compensate for followers inability and high relationship orientation to get the follower to “buy into” the leader’s desires o Participating – able and unwilling follower – use a supportive and participative style o Delegating (laissez faire) – able and willing – leader doesn’t need to do much Path-Goal Theory  Proposes that it’s the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group/organization  Fusion of Ohio state leadership research (initiating structure + consideration) + Expectancy Theory of motivation  Effective leaders both clarify the path to help their followers achieve their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls  Three guidelines to effectiveness: o Determine the outcomes subordinates want – good pay, job security, interesting work, autonomy, etc. o Reward individuals with their desired outcomes when they perform well o Let individuals know what they need to do to receive rewards (the path to the goal) – remove barriers to high performance, express confidence that individuals have the ability to perform well  Four leadership behaviors that might be used in different situations to motivate individuals: o Directive leader – lets followers know what’s expected of them, schedules work to be done, gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks o Supportive leader – friendly, shows concern, recommended when individuals are under stress o Participative leader – consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision o Achievement-oriented leader – sets challenging goals, expects followers to perform at their highest level  Works well with those who are highly motivated  Two types of contingency variables that affect the leadership behavior-outcome relationship: o Environmental variables – outside the control of the employee  Task structure  Formal authority system  Work group o Subordinate variables – part of the personal characteristics of the employee  Locus of control  Experience  Perceived ability  When leader compensates for what is lacking in the employee or work setting  increased satisfaction + performance Substitutes for Leadership  Certain individual, job, and organizational variables can act as substitutes for leadership or neutralize the leader’s abi
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