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COMM 292
David Crawford

Chapter 3 OB: Values, attitudes and, diversity • Values – Concepts or beliefs that guide how we make decisions about, and evaluations of, behaviours and events. – Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. • Two frameworks for understanding values – Milton Rokeach’s value survey – Kent Hodgson’s general moral principles • Types of values – Terminal: goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime – Instrumental: preferable ways of behaving • Importance of values – Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour. • Ethics – The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour, and inform us whether our actions are right or wrong. • Ethical values are related to moral judgments about right and wrong. • Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Culture: • Power Distance: extent to which society accepts unequal distribution of power. • Individualism vs. Collectivism: degree to which ppl act as invdividuals vs. members of a group. • Masculinity vs. Femininity: degree to which cultures favour traditional masculine roles vs. a culture that treats women as equals (high femininity rating) • Uncertainty Avoidance: extent to which culture feels threatened by ambiguity/uncertainty • Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation: valuing behaviours that give future rewards vs. current rewards. • South American nations tend to be higher on uncertainty avoidance and asian countries ten to have long term orientation • GLOBE framework for assessing cultures – GLOBE dimensions are as follows: Assertiveness, Future orientation, Gender differentiation, Uncertainty avoidance, Power distance, Individualism/Collectivism, In-group collectivism (collectivism in small groups like family etc. rather than a general societal collectivism), Performance orientation, Humane orientation. • GLOBE added dimensions such as humane orientation and performance orientation to Hofstede’s dimensions • Values in the Canadian Workplace: Generational Differences (reflect societal values of the period in which they grew up), Cultural Differences • Attitudes: Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events; Attitudes are less stable than values; they are responses to situations and are thus not values(which are concrete regardless of situation) • Three important attitudes affect organizational performance: • Job satisfaction: general attitude toward job • Organizational commitment: A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization • Employee engagement • Key sources of Job Satisfaction: • Work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, co-workers • Enjoying the work itself is almost always most strongly correlated with high levels of job satisfaction. • Once a person reaches the level of comfortable living the relationship between pay and satisfaction virtually disappears. • People with positive core self-evaluations , believe in their inner worth and basic competence, and are more satisfied with their work. • Satisfaction affects: Individual productivity, Organizational productivity, Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB = discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization), Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction  Employee satisfaction is related to positive customer outcomes. • Many managers are not concerned with job satisfaction measures. Many other managers overestimate the job satisfaction of their employees • Organizational Commitment: • Affective commitment: An individual’s relationship to the organization. • Normative commitment: The obligation an individual feels to staying with an organization. • Continuance commitment: An individual’s calculation that it is in his or her best interest to stay with the organization based on the perceived costs of leaving it. • Employee Engagement • An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for work he or she does. • Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to the company. • Firms that have employees with a higher level of engagement tend to see positive results: Higher customer satisfaction, More productive employees, Higher profits, Lower levels of turnover and accidents • Managing Diversity in the workplace: there is little research showing that values can be changed successfully thus workplaces try to address diversity through education aimed at changing attitudes; due to generational differences in the workforce tensions over diversity initiatives in the workplace might last a long time • Cultural Intelligence: The ability to understand someone’s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in the same way as would people from his or her culture. • Individuals with high c
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