Textbook Notes (363,137)
Canada (158,217)
Commerce (379)
COMM 410 (22)
All (2)

Perfect Comm 392 Notes.docx

22 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
COMM 410

JMK HR 392 NOTES HR COMMERCE 392 NOTES UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION I. READINGS KNIGHT- Trendy’s Restaurant ­ Who: Mike Fulton, owner of Trendy’s restaurant started with one restaurant and expanded gradually. He manages the Richmond restaurant o Irene Martin: Executive assistant, helps Mike order food, when problems arise, Mike and Irene expect the location manager to handle the situation o Ron Cavanagh: Manager of downtown Trendy’s o Sue Li: server at downtown, 20 years old full time worker, studied Psych at UBC but dropped for financial reasons ­ Trendy’s: servers receive minimum wage, when someone leaves without paying then management pays the bill from the tip fund (dine and dash funds are illegal though) ­ What: Ron says he fired Sue for poor performance, Sue says he sexually harassed her (grabbed her arm) II. VIDEO NOTES 60 Minutes- Royal Treatment ­ Sas: largest privately held software business in the world ­ Provides fitness center, pool tables, swimming arenas, masseuse, putting green etc. that staff can use at any time ­ Company encourages people to get their work done in a 35 hour week ­ CEO Jim Goodnide ­ Sas has never laid off a single employee ­ Not offered stock options because there is no stock, privately held company UNIT 2: THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP & IT’S CONTEXTS I. READINGS KNIGHT Chapter 2- The Contexts of the Employment Relationship Environmental Influences on the Employment Relationship 1 [Type text] - From a strategic point, HRM needs to be tailored to the overall business strategy, which is about identifying and developing sources of competitive advantage - Emergence of rapidly developing economies and workforces in places such as China, India, SK and Brazil present great challenges as well as opportunities to developed nations such as the US, Canada and Europe - Macroeconomics forces have a continuous effect on both business and employment conditions: rise and fall of product market demand, inflationary pressures, exchange rate volatility and capital flows have large impacts on levels and types of employment as well as working conditions; these factors sharply influence bother employer and employee expectations and attitudes (seen in the actions of employees and labor unions) - Work and the employment relationship continue to be shaped by the introduction of IT - Trends and developments in the social, demographic and political realms also have important impacts on the employment relationship The Legal Context - We need to pay attention to the legal authorizes that regulate employment conditions - Jurisdiction: term has several important meanings within the realm of employment law. Distinction between the Canadian Federal jurisdiction and the various provincial jurisdiction o Federal is regulated by public policy and laws set by the fed gov in Ottawa, includes fed gov and crown corporation employees (e.g. Canada post); employees of the territories and those in certain private sector industries that engage in commerce across provincial or international boundaries e.g. railways, chartered banks, airlines, shipping etc. in total = about 10% of Canadian workforce o Rest of the workforce falls under the various provincial jurisdictions as dictated by where a business unit is actually located o Also refers to the specific purpose or public policy objectives of a given law or other “legal authority”, as seen in the chart there are eight major areas of employment law jurisdiction, each has a set of minimum employment standards that cover wages, compensation for overtime work, vacation, parental leave, care and notice when terminating managerial and exec employees, etc. - Legal Authorities in the Employment Relationship Authorities (Laws) Public Policy Objectives Adjudicators Employment Standards Act Fair Minimum Standards: Wages, Employment Standards Branch & Hours, Holidays, Parental Leave, Tribunal – Ministry of Labor Notice Required on Dismissal, etc. The “Common Law” Principle of Employer’s Duty to Give Reasonable The Courts Wrongful Dismissal Notice, or Pay In Lieu of Notice, Upon Dismissal, Unless “Just Cause” is Established 2 JMK HR 392 NOTES Human Rights Code Fair Employment Practices: No Human Rights Tribunal Discrimination - Race, Gender, Age, Disability, Political Beliefs, etc. Privacy Laws – BC Personal Organizational Accountability for the Information and Privacy Information Protection Collection, Use, and Disclosure of Commissioner of British Act/Federal Act (PIPEDA) Personal Information Columbia/Privacy Commissioner of Canada Workers’ Compensation, Protection from Occupational Injury Occupational Health & Safety Occupational Health & Safety and Illness/Compensation for Branch/Division – Ministry of Acts Occupational Injury and Illness Labour, / Worksafe BC (for Enforcement) Labour Relations Code Right to Collective Bargaining, Labour Relations Boards Regulation of Union - Management Relations Collective Bargaining Agreement Bilateral Determination of Working Arbitration Board – Appointed by Conditions Management and Labour Employment Equity Act (Applies Removal of Barriers in Employment Department of Human Resources to Particular Employers Only) for 4 Designated Groups and Skills Development Canada (for Reporting Requirements), Canadian Human Rights Commission (for Enforcement) - Labor relations or trade union legislation: refers to laws supporting the right of workers to choose to be represented by a labor union, provide a framework for determining whether and which employees shall be represented by a union - Employment equity legislation: seeks to overcome historical disadvantages in employment faced by visible minorities, women, aboriginals, disabled persons etc. by requiring employers to make efforts to increase the rep of them Labor Unions & Collective Bargaining - First attempt to form unions occurred in North America in mid-1800s, efforts was treated as a criminal conspiracy and union leaders, as well as their followers, were treated as criminals - 1935 union membership, organizing and collective bargaining over working conditions became legal rights - Earliest unions were built around a specific craft or trade, in order to be a member of the union workers had to possess specific skills; primary goal was to improve pay, reduce their hours of work and improve other working conditions, these were called “building trades unions” - Mass industries grew during the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century, a new form of unions, "industrial" unions came into existence – sometimes in competition with the older craft unions - Industrial unionists were more radical in their political outlook - Today dominant philosophy of labor unions is “business unionism” - Many believe that is an enterprise becomes unionized it will quickly be driven out of business, but this has rarely been the actual cause High Performance Human Resource Management 3 [Type text] - HRM used to be called personnel management, then employee relations; this change in name represents a growing awareness of the importance of effective workforce management to the success of the enterprise KNIGHT: Chapter 3- Recruiting, Developing & Maintaining a Workforce What is the Work? - Defining the work to be performed and, therefore, the profile of an ideal job candidate rests on the process of job analysis - Earliest form of job analysis was the "scientific management" methodology developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the late 1800s o Taylor proposed breaking production jobs down into their component tasks, determining their optimal performance by workers and then training workers to perform these tasks optimally – enforcing optimal production movements through close supervision o Workflow and jobs were subjected to "time and motion studies" to determine, down to a 100th of a second, how much time was necessary to perform a task if performed optimally by the worker  increase efficiency, but found that people resisted it as the improvement in wages promised bit rarely materialized and the reduction of work to its smallest tasks was viewed as reducing the skill content of jobs - Central objective of job analysis is to identify the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for successful performance of a job – its "KSAs." o "Abilities" refers to more innate or previously developed talents possessed by workers – such as the ability to learn new procedures or to stay calm under pressure – that are necessary to be truly successful in performing a particular job - Provides the basis for two important pieces of documentation of jobs: the job description and the job specification o Job specification: a statement of the qualifications (such as educational requirements) or experience necessary for the job, it's duties and responsibilities and where the job sits in reporting relationships to other positions within the organization o Job description: written to provide potential applicants for a job, as well as those already performing it, a clear picture of the duties and responsibilities of the job and the context within which it is carried out Human Resources Planning - Workforce planning requires that a database, however simple, containing information on all employees be maintained on a continuous basis 4 JMK HR 392 NOTES - Staffing Policy choices: whether to operate in a state of under- or over-staffing - Employer has to decide whether to promote employees from within the organization as opposed to always filling vacancies from outside the organization - Human resources planning also requires that an employer keep track of external labor market conditions o Human Resources and Skills Development Canada maintains data series that provide employers with information about labor availability broken down by occupational groups and specific labor market areas ­ Human resources information systems (HRIS): provides a platform for integrated management of information about the workforce as a whole as well as individual employees, from application to separation of employment. Where and How Does an Employer Attract Potential Employees? ­ First question is whether it is appropriate to seek to gather that pool on a local, regional, national or global basis ­ Success in attracting desirable job applicants and employees depends significantly on the employer's reputation as an employer ­ Recruitment channels: tradition print media, electronic media, web-based labor market platforms ­ Sometimes, an employer may explicitly seek or select employees from a particular group where the employer can demonstrate that membership in a specific group is a "bona fide occupational requirement" (BFOR) o Examples here may include membership in a specific religion in order to teach within a religion – based curriculum or only allowing female employees to deliver services at a women's rape relief facility ­ Illegal to ask job applicants if they are union members or how they feel about unions How Does the Employer Select the Best Employees? ­ First step in selecting employees is to clarify selection criteria; invest in careful job analysis ­ Employer must have a clear sense of the organization’s culture and expectations of employees i.e. ability to function as a team, or to perform well without continuous supervision ­ Tests: can be oversold, must be evaluated and selected to accurately gather info about applicants that is truly necessary for the selection criteria ­ Interviews o Behavioral questions: asks the interview subject to talk about a time that they encountered a 5 [Type text] particular circumstance, such as conflict with a co-worker, and how they handled it o Situational questions: seeks similar info but instead asks an applicant to talk about how they would respond to a hypothetical situation in the future o Also vital to contact reference provided by job applicant Training and Development of Employees ­ Smart employers know that carefully designed and managed training programs are an integral part of the business plan ­ “Needs assessment”: seeks to determine gaps in knowledge and skills that can be addressed by training programs, they ask employees what they need to do their jobs more effectively ­ One important training opportunity often overlooked is orienting/:onboarding”: providing extensive info about the organization, its markets and challenges, how its pieces fit together, what its values are and where the employee fits into the organization KNIGHT: Chapter 4- Employee Compensation, Rewards & Recognition Motivation: Why Work? ­ Want employees that will invest “discretionary” effort into their work effort that is beyond what might be considered the bare minimum or even the average amount ­ Extrinsic motivators: money, power, status ­ Intrinsic motivators: harder to quantify and may be more powerful determinants of an employee’s contribution and commitment; found in the satisfaction from doing good work well or because the work itself addresses a person’s own values Legal Context of Compensation ­ Laws establish minimum compensations standards in most cthntries, earliest employment standards and safety legislation in Canada dates back to late 19 cent ­ Federal level: employers and employees are required to contribute to the Canada Pension Plan (CPP), and employment insurance (EI) programs o EI is a public insurance program that is meant to provide workers laid off from employment for economic reasons (as opposed to those terminated due to failings in their performance or conduct on the job) with financial support until they can locate new employment 6 JMK HR 392 NOTES ­ Provincial level: employers have to contribute to workers’ compensation programs, designed to sustain workers injured on the job, provide remedial assistance to overcome injuries and provide an incentive to employers to operate safe workplaces ­ Employment standards legislation dictates minimum terms of the employment exchange; including minimum wages, standard workday and workweek definitions, frequency of paying wages, statutory holiday pay etc. ­ Recent addition to employment standards legislation in BC is provision for five unpaid family leave days that employees are entitled to take as necessary to deal with family emergencies Compensation: Pay ­ Compensation most often for employees time i.e. hourly wage rate, or salaried employees are paid on broader units of time ­ Incentive pay schemes: used in industries like garment manufacturing and mining ­ Pay for knowledge: scheme that provides measures of compensation to employees for engaging in self-development and knowledge acquisition activities that enable them to be more creative and productive in jobs, used industries like engineering or software development th ­ Most employers aim to place their firm in the 50-75 percentile in compensation and are quite successful in maintaining a quality workforce ­ Labor unions are often opposed to piece rate pay (employee is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit of good produced/action performed, regardless of time) as they think employers keep piece rates low and because such incentive systems have caused workers to compromise safety in such industries as coal mining ­ Wage structure: internal structure of pay rates at different jobs and levels within the organization o If flat (not much diff between lower and higher paid jobs then workers will have little incentive to acquire knowledge and skills needed to progress from one level to another o If steep it may be perceived as unfair ­ Job evaluation: a technical process that involves assigning points to specific dimensions of jobs, called compensable factors (include difference among jobs like the amount effort required in the job, the degree of independent responsibility, specific nature of working conditions etc.) in order to establish a relative worth of jobs within and organization o Similar to job analysis but the results of job analysis are used to identify key jobs that the pay for other related jobs will be based upon Linking Pay and Performance ­ Research evidence is that the most powerful motivator of high performance and creativity is intrinsic; satisfaction derived from the nature and manner of performance of the work itself 7 [Type text] ­ Gain sharing: a system for engaging employees in solving problems and improving production processes in measurable ways so that the financial gains thus generated can be shared between the organization and the employees responsible for achieving them o Employees are involved in identifying targets for improvement and setting goals against which improvements will be measured e.g. reduction in production defects, improvement in the speed and quality of customer service (different to profit sharing where people are not told what they need to do to make profits happen, they do not understand the connection between what they do and profits, they feel a sense of entitlement to the profit sharing)) o Receive both extrinsic (money) and intrinsic rewards o Usually provide weekly or monthly feedback, usually a payout on a monthly basis, they can thus see the gains varying with how well they do what they need to do to drive the gains ­ Employee share ownership programs: re-invest a portion of an employee’s compensation in enterprise equity Compensation: Benefits ­ Employer paid extended medical, dental and life insurance plans, pension contributions, paid time off work, support for educational leaves etc. ­ Been decreasing over time ­ Tim Horton’s case: makes the fact that it provides employee benefits a central feature of its employer branding ­ Flexible benefits plan: employee can choose from a selection KNIGHT: Chapter 5- Managing Employee Performance What is Employee Performance? ­ Both time and volume are important dimensions of performance. They are also the most easily measured ­ Must make the effort through job analysis to catalogue the critical drivers of successful performance as well as outcome measures such as speed and volume. Just as we need detailed job analysis to know what knowledge, skills and abilities to look for in job candidates and in order to focus training and development efforts, we need the analysis to be able to establish the foundation for performance management Performance Management Processes 8 JMK HR 392 NOTES ­ Slightly cynical way of putting it is that performance appraisal is about catching people screwing up  inherently negative (bad) ­ Over time it has become about catching employees doing the right things ­ Traditional methods have emphasized a top-down view of management, managers evaluate subordinates, tends to place employees on the defensive in the evaluation process ­ Some leading types of performance methodologies: o Graphing Rate Scales: focus on traits of individual employees that have been identified as necessary for successful performance of a job. Such traits may include quality and quantity of production, personal reliability in such areas as attendance and cooperativeness with others in the workplace or on a work team. The rater – usually a supervisor – rates employees on a scale ranging from unsatisfactory to “exceeds expectations,” each rating being worth a certain specified number of points. Points then tallied o Forced Distributions: based on the idea that the performance of the employees in a work force is somehow normally distributed on a bell curve. The supervisor’s task then is to distribute employees across segments of the curve, effectively comparing employees to each other in terms of their relative performance. Forced distribution method enables managers to compare the performance of employees performing similar work o Critical Incident Report: Critical incidents are events that exemplify high or low levels of performance by an employee. Supervisors must be prepared to record such occurrences involving all of the employees that report to them on a regular basis. If critical incident reports are recorded consistently they can provide valid support for a supervisor’s judgments about the performance of individual employees. o Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS): this approach breaks job performance down into specific behaviors necessary for successful performance of the job and provides a narrative description of the behaviors that warrant a rating from 1 to 5. Manager considers an employee's performance on the various behavioral dimensions of the job, according to the gradations captured in narrative statements about varying levels of job performance. o Management by Objective (MBO): involves working with employees to review their performance over a previous period and then defining specific objectives or goals for improving the employee's performance over an upcoming period. This method is best conducted collaboratively by a supervisor and an employee Role of Managers in Performance Management ­ Managers must be aware of the hazards of bias in conducting performance appraisals, some of the key forms are: o Halo Effect: a manager rates an employee as superior on all traits or aspects of a job on the basis of outstanding performance on one trait
More Less

Related notes for COMM 410

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.