Fragile System Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
Earth and Ocean Sciences
EOSC 114
Leah May Ver

Unit A- Natural Disasters are Rare Events - SI standard for time is seconds (s) o 1 year=annum=365.25 d o 1 millennium= 1000 years= 1000a o Age of Earth= 4.57 billion years= 4.57 Ga o Age of oceans= 4.3 Ga o Age of present ocean basins= 200 million years= 200 Ma o Time before present when life begins= 3.8 Ga DISASTER BUILD-UP RELEASE Earthquakes years minutes Volcanoes decades days Hurricanes months days Thunderstorms hours minutes Rogue waves hours seconds Landslides days seconds Meteor Impact millennia seconds - SI standard for distance is meter (m)  Earth Radius= 6357 km  Atmospheric thickness= troposphere (bottom that has storms): 11 km; exosphere (top): 550 km  Ocean depth= average depth: 4 km; deepest portions (i.e. marinas trench): 11 km  Air molecule= 0.001μm: 10^-9 m - SI standard for mass is kilogram (kg)  Mass of Earth: 5.97x10^24 kg  Mass of Air molecule 4.8x10^-26 kg Stratification - Layering of materials according to density, materials are stratified into layers - Oceans can be classified by seawater density, available light, and ecological characteristics - “Order of magnitude” means “power of ten” o Ex. UBC Van is an order of magnitude greater than the number of students in UBCO- Van has ten times more students than UBCO (4000 UBC Van= 40,000 UBCO) o Ex. UBCO has an order of magnitude smaller than Van- it has one tenth the enrolment - Return Period= o (time span of data record)/(number of cases of magnitude M) EARTH'S ABUNDANCE EARTH'S CORE CRUST OCEAN ATMOSPHERE Most abundant Iron, Fe OXYGEN ??? NITROGEN 2nd abundant ??? SILICON Hydrogen, H OXYGEN 3rd abundant (Unknown) Aluminum, Al OXYGEN Argon - Crystal structures form when atoms in molecules line up in a regular lattice caused by various bonds o Cleavage- direction of weakness that allows crystals to split along smooth planes o Cleavage planes follow weakest bonds in lattice o Structural failure- fracture of the material (earthquakes) o Crystal shapes:  Cubic: 6 sides  Octahedral: two square pyramids stacked bottom to bottom; 8 sides  Hexagonal column with pyramid: pencil-like; 6 sided shaft capped on the end with a 6 sided pyramid - Phases of Matter o Solids: not very fluid; not very compressible  Not very fluid because over geological time scales, some solids behave like fluids (i.e.
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