Chapter 6 Independent Questions
I. Theories of Social and Personality Development
A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives – See Lecture Templates
B. Ethological Perspectives
1. (a) Bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships. Clarify
the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment? (Note: See definitions in the margin,
as the phrasing in the paragraph is poor.)
-affectionate bond = emotional tie to an infant experienced by a parent
-affectionate attachment = emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant, from which the child
(b) Define reactive attachment disorder – a disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming
close social relationships
Research Report: Adoption and Development
2. Read the research report on pp. 150-151.
(a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted?
-difference between parents and adopted infant in terms of temperament and personality
-different circumstances of the child prior to adoption
(b) What did Elinor Ames’s (1997) research with Romanian orphans find?
-infants who had lived in Romanian orphanages for over 4 months before adoption by BC
families tend to have more psychological and motor-behavior problems than non-adopted
-longer the stay in Romanian orphanage, more serious the difficulties
(c) What did Lucy LeMare’s (2001) research with Romanian orphans find?
-in general, Romanian orphans showed significantly more difficulties than Canadian-born or
early-adopted RO; lower IQ and academic achievements, more difficulties with attention,
learning, peer relationships
A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant
3. (a) Define synchrony – a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behavior shared by a parent
and a child
(b) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar between fathers and mothers.
-depend more on synchrony than on contact immediately after birth
-infant signals needs by crying, smiling; parents enters into interaction with caregiving
(c) Identify the parental behaviours that are different between fathers and mothers.
-father: play, physical roughhousing, less consistent in responding to cues
-mother: routine caregiving, talk and smile to baby more
-difference in parental behaviors does not equate to level of affectionate bond
B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents
i. Establishing Attachment – See lecture notes
ii. Attachment Behaviours – See lecture notes and answer the independent question below. 4. Some parent-infant interactions incorporate affect dysregulation. Describe this type of interactional
pattern and record the research findings related to it.
-affect dysregulation = an interaction pattern in which a caregiver’s emotional responses to an
infant interfere with the baby’s ability to learn how to regulate his or her emotions
-caregiver responds negatively to baby’s negative emotion, escalating baby’s negative feelings
-more common in infant-mother pairs in which mother displays low level of sensitivity to infant’s
needs and infant is insecurely attached
-quality of emotional give-and-take in interactions between infant and caregiver important to
child’s ability to control emotions such as anger and frustration in later years
iii. Internal Models – See lecture notes
C. Variations in Attachment Quality
i. Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes
ii. Stability of Attachment Classifications – See lecture notes
D. Caregiver characteristics and attachment
i. Emotional Responsiveness
5. (a) Define the two crucial ingredients for secure attachment.
- emotional availability of primary caregiver
- contingent responsiveness (= being sensitive to child’s verbal/non-verbal cues and responding
appropriately) of primary caregeiver
(b) A low level of parental responsiveness is associated with both types of insecure attachment.
However, each type of insecure attachment is distinct. Explain what parental responses are
(i) avoidant patterns of attachment – mother rejects infant or regularly withdraws from contact with
(ii) ambivalent patterns of attachment (“anxious” type) – mother inconsistently or unreliably
available for child
(iii) disorganized/disoriented patterns of attachment (fourth type of attachment identified by more
contemporary researchers – that is, not one of Ainsworth’s original three types of attachment) –
child abused and parent’s early death
ii. Marital Status and SES
6. (a) How does age influence the attachment process?
- with increasing age, mother become less likely to describe their babies as “difficult”
- older mother display more sensitive caregiving behaviors than younger mothers (teens)
- younger mothers likely to have less education and fewer economic resources than older mothers
(b) How does marital conflict influence the attachment process?
- marital conflict poses risks for development of attachment
- 6-month-olds exposed to parental arguments more likely to display signs of emotional
withdrawal, lessening chance of secure attachment with caregiver
iii. Mental Health – (optional reading – not on exams) E. Long-term Consequences of Attachment Quality
7. The effects of attachment quality have been empirically investigated. Summarize the effects of
attachment during the stages of
(a) childhood – secure attachment: more sociable, more positive in behavior toward friends and
siblings less clinging and dependent on teachers, less aggressive and disruptive, more empathetic,
more emotionally mature in interactions in school and other settings outside home
(b) adolescence – secure attachment: more socially skilled, have more intimate friendships, more
likely to be leaders, higher self-esteem, better grades
Insecure attachments: less positive and supportive friendships, more likely to become sexually
active early and practice riskier sex
(c) adulthood – quality of attachment in male babies predicted sexual dysfunction in adulthood
better than history of sexual abuse; internal model of attachment affects parenting
III. Personality, Temperament, and Self-Concept
A. Dimensions of Temperament
Temperament is defined as inborn predispositions (nature) that affect how infants behave and
emotionally respond to their environment. Temperament is the foundation for personality, which
emerges in later stages of development. For instance, in chapter 10, you will be introduced to five
personality types; however, in the current chapter, the focus is on temperament.
8. (a) Based on their nine dimensions, Thomas and Chess propose three types of infant temperament:
(i) easy (40%) – a predisposition to approaching new event positively, displaying predictable
sleeping and eating cycles, generally happy, adjust easily to change
(ii) difficult (10%) – a predisposition for irregular sleeping and eating cycles, emotional negativity
and irritability, resistance to change
(iii) slow-to-warm-up (15%) – a predisposition for inactivity and turning away from and adjusting
slowly to unfamiliar people and new experiences; display mild signs of negativity and discomfort
(b) Thomas and Chess’s work on temperament (their 9 dimensions and 3 types) has been revised by
more contemporary temperament theories who focus on temperament traits rather than categories.
Define the five contemporary traits or dimensions of temperament in infancy:
(i) activity level – infant’s tendency either to move often and vigorously or to remain
(ii) approach/positive emotionality – tendency to move toward rather than away from new people
or things, usually accompanied by positive emotion (similar to sociability)
(iii) inhibition – tendency to respond with fear or withdrawal to new people, things, or situations
(opposite of approach characteristic)
(iv) negative emotionality – tendency to respond to frustrating circumstances with anger, fussing,
(v) effortful control/task persistence – ability to stay focused and to manage attention and effort
B. Origins and Stability of Temperament
i. Heredity - (optional reading – not on exams)
ii. Neurological Processes
9. Jerome Kagan believes that temperament is the result of our physiology and neurology. According
to Kagan, what is the basis for human shyness or behavioural inhibition?
- based on differing thresh