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FMST 210 (63)
Chapter 10

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Department
Family Studies
Course
FMST 210
Professor
Maria Weatherby
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10 Independent Questions 1. What does society of childhood mean? (See 2 paragraph in the introduction section) Society of childhood – society in which children make up their own social rules that differ from those of adult society (food trading) => show social competence by creating and enforcing own rules I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives 2. (a) What is the challenge of middle childhood according to Freud? - children 6 to puberty repress libidinal desires to concentrate on developing friendships and social skills - challenge in forming emotional bonds with peers and to move beyond those developed with parents in earlier years (b) According to Erikson, why might a child develop a sense of inferiority rather than industry? industry vs. inferiority stage – 4 of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, during which children develop a sense of their own competence through mastery of culturally defined learning tasks - develop inferiority if industry not achieved; if 6-12 year olds fail to learn how to write (industry) and read, will feel sense of inferiority in adulthood B. The Big Five Personality Traits 3. (a) What do trait theorists believe? (See first paragraph in this section) - personality built on foundation of child’s inborn temperament - personality – set of variations along five major dimensions or traits: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness/intellect -trait – stable pattern of responding to situations (b)Identify the Big Five Personality Traits (You need to know all of Table 10.1) 1) Extraversion = quality: active, assertive, enthusiastic, outgoing; temperament: high activity level, sociability, positive, emotionality, talkativeness 2) Agreeableness = affectionate, forgiving, generous, kind, sympathetic, trusting; high approach/positive emotionality, effortful control 3) Conscientious = efficient, organized, prudent, reliable, responsible; effortful control/task persistence 4) Neuroticism (emotional instability) = anxious, self-pitying, tense, touchy, unstable, worrying; negative emotionality, irritability 5) Openness/intellect = artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, original, wide interests; approach, low inhibition (c) Why might children high in agreeableness display less aggression than children low in agreeableness? - children high in agreeableness use more effective conflict resolution strategies (d)How might an extraverted child handle peer rejection differently than an introverted child? - extraverted: more determined to be accepted by group - introverted: emotionally distraught and avoid social situations in future C. Social-Cognitive Perspectives – optional reading (not on exams) II. Self-Concept 4. What new aspects of self-concept are understood by the end of middle childhood? - psychological self - valued self A. The Psychological Self i. Personality Traits 5. (a) Define the psychological self – a person’s understanding of his/her enduring psychological characteristics (b) What changes occur to a child’s psychological self throughout the concrete operational stage? - psychological self becomes more complex, more comparative, less tied to external features, more centered on emotions and ideas ii. Self-efficacy nd 6. Identifyrdhree factors that contribute to self-efficacy beliefs, according to Bandura. (See 2 and 3 paragraphs) -peer models/social comparison -encouragement from knowledgeable people that children value and respect - individual’s real life experiences – believing in yourself B. The Valued Self i. The Nature of Self-Esteem 7. Define self-esteem – global evaluation of one’s own worth/value ii. How Self-Esteem Develops 8. (a) According to Susan Harter two things influence a child’s self-esteem. The first thing is described in paragraph one and two. The second thing is described in paragraph three. - mental comparisons of children’s ideal selves and their actual experiences - overall support child feels and receives from important people around her (parents, teachers) (b) How do the criteria by which children learn to evaluate themselves differ in individualistic and collectivist cultures? - individualistic cultures (Canada): self-esteem based on child’s own interests and abilities - collectivist cultures (China): children taught to value themselves based on cultural ideas about what a “good” person is (c) Why is self-esteem at least moderately consistent over time? (See final paragraph) - child tends to choose experiences that confirm and support self-esteem because the social environment (including parents’ evaluation of children) tend to be moderately consistent iii. Meaningfulness – optional reading (not on exams) III. Advances in Social Cognition A. The Child as Psychologist 9. (a) How do 6-7 year-olds describe others (such as their friends)? Note that the quote in your textbook made by a 7 year old illustrates how 6-7 year-olds describe others. - focus on external features: appearance, where he lives, what he does; not yet developed concept of “conservation of personality” (b) Around 7-8 years of age a ‘dramatic shift’ occurs in children’s descriptors of others. Describe this shift. Note that the quote in your textbook made by a 10 year-old illustrates this dramatic shift. - focus more on inner traits/qualities and assume that those traits visible in many situations (general points of internal traits) (c) Research finds that behavioural comparisons peak at 8 years of age; psychological comparisons increase throughout middle childhood. What does this mean? Behavioral comparison – any description involving comparison in a child’s behaviors or physical features with those of another child or a norm (Billy is taller than Bob) Psychological comparisons – any statement that involved internal personality traits (“sarah is kind”) B. Moral Reasoning i. Piaget’s Moral Realism and Moral Relativism 10. (a) Describe Piaget’s two-stage theory of moral development. (See paragraphs 1- 5) - moral realism stage • Children under 8 • Believe that rules come from authorities (parents, teachers, government) and cannot be changed • Believe all rule violations result in punishment - moral relativism stage • 8-12 • Learn that rules can be changed by people if wanted/needed as long as everyone follows same rule (baseball: everyone gets 4 strikes instead of 3) • Know you can’t get punished for breaking rules unless you get caught • Understand accidents not caused by “naughty” or “bad” behavior • Can distinguish between intentional and unthtentional (b) Does research support Piaget’s theory? (See 6 or final paragraph) - 8+ focus more on intention than consequence when making moral judgments - although children 8+ more mature thinking than preschoolers, moral reasoning is still highly egocentric (c) According to Thomas Lickona, what should parents of 6-12 year-olds do to encourage mature moral reasoning? (See Development in the Real World – p. 287) - require kids to give reasons for wants - play developmentally appropriate games - praise them for observing social conventions (“please”, “thankyou”) - provide explanation for punishment - reciprocity: someone did something nice for you, you should do something nice in return - meaningful chores => responsibility of family, community members - base obedience on love, trust, and respect, not fear - religious and philosophical values, right/wrong - charitable projects (food drives) IV. Social Relationships A. Family Relationships 11. Some studies have found that the single best predictor of better childhood outcomes, regardless of family structure, socioeconomic factors, or time spent in school, church, playing sports, or involved in the arts is family meals (5+/week) i. Th
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