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Chapter 12

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Department
Family Studies
Course
FMST 210
Professor
Maria Weatherby
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 12 Independent Questions I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytic Perspectives 1. (a) According to Erikson, what is an identity crisis – Ericson’s term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arises when an adolescent’s sense of self becomes “unglued” so that a new, more mature sense of self can be achieved; period during which adolescent is troubled by his lack of an identity (b) How do peer groups help adolescents with an identity crisis? - adolescents’ tendency to identify with peer groups is a defense against the emotional turmoil endangered by the identity crisis - teens protect themselves against unpleasant emotions of identity crisis by merging their individual identities with that of a group => forms base of security from which teen can move toward a unique solution of the identity crisis B. Marcia’s Theory of Identity Achievement 2. Marcia argued that adolescent identity formation consists of two key dimensions: a crisis and a commitment. (a) crisis – period of decision-making when old values and old choices are re-examined; may occur as psychological characteristics commitment – outcome of the reevaluation; commitment to some specific role, value, goal, or ideology (b) Based on the two dimensions in 2a, four identity types emerge: Determine whether a crisis and commitment exists in each of the four types (See Figure 12.1). (i) Identity Achievement – crisis; commitment (ii) Moratorium – crisis (ongoing) (iii) Foreclosure – commitment (w/o going through crisis) (iv) Identity Diffusion – none (has not gone through crisis; has not made a commitment) II. Self-Concept and Personality A. Self-Understanding 3. How does self-concept change from 10 years of age to 18 years of age? (See Figure 2.2) - less physical characteristics - reference to ideology, beliefs, enduring traits, personal philosophy, moral standards - more differentiated; see themselves differently in each role: as student, with friends, with parents, in romantic relationship - above self-concepts influence adolescent’s behavior - strong self-concept important to development of good mental and physical health B. Gender Role - See Lecture Templates - Ch. 8 (Gender Identity) C. Self-Esteem - See Lecture Templates – Ch. 8 (Gender Identity) D. Ethnic Identity 4. Summarize the key points and research findings in this section. - over 70 ethnic identities in Canada - minority teens (especially recent immigrant) must create two identities: individual identity and ethnic identity - ethnic identity – sense of belonging to an ethnic group; commitment to group’s values and attitudes - immigrant parents’ expectations and views differ from adolescents who have been exposed to majority cultural values - ethnic identity tends to strengthen with age and progresses through phases: younger children not much interest in ethnic identity; younger person more aware of gulf between value and attitudes of own culture and majority culture; period of exploration; adolescents internalize their ethnic identity and commit to own ethnic group -ethnic identity development not always smooth or complete - adolescents with strong and favorable ethnic identities have higher levels of self-esteem and optimism and best outcomes - teens with bicultural identity feel positive about own group and have good relationships with other ethnic groups - bicultural identity = personal identification and satisfaction with more than one culture - once having lived in Canada for a decade, immigrant youth adopt patterns of lifestyle behaviors similar to those of Canadian-born youth Development in the Real World (p. 345) – optional reading (not on exams) E. Locus of Control and Other Traits – optional reading (not on exams) III. Moral Development A. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning i. Age and Moral Reasoning 5. (a) Very few children reason beyond stage 1 and 2 . (b) Most adolescents reason at stage 2 and 3 . (c) Most adults reason at stage 3 and 4 . ii. Preconventional Reasoning 6. (a) Describe preconventional reasoning/morality (i.e., level 1 reasoning). - child’s judgment based on sources of authority outside of self who are close by and physically superior (usually parents) - standards child uses for judgment are external rather than internal - outcome or consequence of an action determines right or wrong of action (b) Describe the first Stage of moral reasoning – the punishment and obedience orientation. - child or teen relies on physical consequence of action to decide right or wrong - if punished => behavior wrong; if not punished => behavior right - obedience to adults because they are superior – bigger and stronger (c) Describe the second Stage of moral reasoning – individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange. - child or teen obey rules when it’s in their immediate interest - do things that are rewarded; avoid things that are punished - if it brings pleasant results, then it’s good => naïve hedonism iii. Conventional Reasoning 7. (a) Describe conventional reasoning/morality (i.e., level 2 reasoning) - judgments based on rules or norms of a group to which person belongs - judgment of external authorities internalized but not questioned or analyzed (b) Describe the third Stage of moral reasoning – mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal conformity. - good boy/nice girl stage - moral actions are those that live up to expectations of family or other significant group - “being good” becomes important for its own sake; good behavior is what pleases others - value trust, loyalty, respect, gratitude, maintenance of mutual relationships - if “didn’t mean to do it”, then wrongdoing is less severe than if done on purpose (c) Describe the fourth Stage of moral reasoning – law-and-order orientation. - law-and-order orientation - moral actions defined by larger social groups or society as a whole - one should fulfill duties one has agreed to and uphold laws, except in extreme cases - morality = legality; legal = right, illegal = wrong iv. Postconventional Reasoning 8. (a) Describe postconventional reasoning/morality (i.e., level 3 reasoning). - judgments based on integration of individual rights and needs of society - shift of authority: individual makes choices and judgments based on self-chosen principles or principles of group (b) Describe the fifth Stage of moral reasoning – social contract orientation. - acting to achieve greatest good for greatest number - awareness that most values are relative and law are changeable, although rules should be upheld to preserve social order -basic
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