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FMST 210 (63)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Independent Questions.docx

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Department
Family Studies
Course Code
FMST 210
Professor
Maria Weatherby

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Chapter 4Independent Questions I Physical ChangesA The Brain and Nervous System1 a Is the reproductive system fully developed at birth The reproductive system for instance is completely formed at birth but doesnt grow or change much until pubertyb What brain structures are the most developed at birth Identify the functions of these structures At birth the midbrain and the medulla are the most fully developed These two parts both of which are in the lower part of the skull and connected to the spinal cord regulate vital func tions such as heartbeat and respiration as well as attention sleeping waking elimination and movement of the head and the neckall actions a newborn can perform at least moderately wellc What part of the brain is the least developed at birth Identify the functions of this structure The leastdeveloped part of the brain at birth is the cortex the convoluted grey matter that wraps around the midbrain and is involved in perception body movement thinking and languageSynaptic Development 2 a Define the term synaptogenesis which occurs due to growth of both dendrites and axonsSynaptogenesis the creation of synapses occurs rapidly in the cortex during the first few years after birth resulting in a quadrupling of the overall weight of the brain by age 4 However synaptogenesis is not smooth and continuous Instead it happens in spurtsb Define the term synaptic pruning which occurs because each synaptic growth spurt generates many more synapses than we actually need Typically each synaptic growth spurt generates many more connections between neurons than the individual actually needs Thus each burst of synaptogenesis is followed by a period of synaptic pruning in which unnecessary pathways and connections are eliminatedc Overtime the cycle of synaptogenesis followed by synaptic pruning leads to a more efficient brain What is the cost or downside of increased efficiency of the brain Because infants have more unused synapses than adults they can bounce back from a host of insults to the brain eg malnutrition head injury much more easily than an adultd Define the term neuroplasticity Neuroscientists use the term neuroplasticity to refer to the brains ability to change in response to experiencee Your textbook states that one of the implications from the cyclical synaptogenesispruning feature of neurological development is that brain development follows the old dictum Use it or lose it Why do we lose brain functions we dont use A child growing up in a rich or intellectually challenging environment will retain a more complex network of synapses than one growing up with fewer forms of stimulation In addition as mentioned earlier the brains of infants possess greater neuroplasticity than
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