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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Independent Questions .docx

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University of British Columbia
Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 1 Independent QuestionsI The Scientific Study of Human Development1 Define developmental psychology the scientific study of agerelated changes in our bodies behaviour thinking emotions social relationships and personalitiesA Philosophical Roots2 Identify the key ideas and the implied parental responsibilities of a The doctrine of original sin the Christian doctrine of original sin often attributed to the 4thcentury North African philosopher Augustine of Hippo taught that all humans are born with a selfish and stubborn nature To reduce the influence of this inborn tendency toward sinfulness Augustine taught humans must seek redemption by leading a disciplined life Thus from this perspective parents facilitate the childs struggle to overcome an inborn tendency to act immorally by restraining and correcting the childs immoral tendenciesb Rousseau He claimed that all human beings are naturally good and seek out experiences that help them grow OzmanCraver 1986 Rousseau believed that children need only nurturing and protection to reach their full potential Good developmental outcomes happen when a childs environment refrains from interfering in her attempts to nurture her own development In contrast poor outcomes occur when a child experiences frustration in her efforts to express the innate goodness with which she was bornc Locke drew on a broad philosophical approach known as empiricism when he claimed that the mind of a child is a blank slate Empiricism is the view that humans possess no innate tendencies and that all differences among humans are attributable to experience As such the blank slate view suggests that adults can mould children into whatever they want them to be Therefore differences among adults can be explained in terms of the differences in their childhood environments rather than as a result of a struggle to overcome their inborn tendencies as the original sin view proposedd If you attended an elementary school that endorsed a policy to reduce teacher control because students are viewed as naturally possessing the desire or internal motivation to work hard this policy would best reflect the ideas ofChoose between 2 a b or c B The Study of Human Development Becomes a ScienceSince the 1930s philosophical ideas have been translated into scientific theories In turn scientific theories are testedevaluated using scientific research methods This section reviews some of the early scientific theories that have paved the way for the more contemporary scientific theories which are covered in chapter two 3 a What concept did Darwins theory of evolution contribute to developmental psychology believed they could understand the development of the human species by studying child development Many including Darwin kept detailed records of their own childrens early development called baby biographies in the hope of finding evidence to support the theory of evolution Charlesworth 1992 These were the first organized studies of human development The concept of developmental stages comes from evolutionary theory
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