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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Independent Questions.docx

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Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 2 Independent Questions I Biological and Evolutionary Theories1 Summarize the two introductory paragraphs of this section Both genetic and epigenetic factors interact with environmental variables to shape our level of health and wellbeing across the lifespan We are just beginning to understand how epigenetic processes integrate nature and nurtureepigenetics is positioned to profoundly change the way we think of human development in the 21st century Evolutionary theories propose that the genetic and physiological processes that underlie human behaviour changed gradually over time through genetic mutation and natural selection Evolution is used to explain cognitive and by extension social and cultural behaviourA Genetics2 Define the following termsa chromosomes strings of genetic material in the nuclei of cellsb DNA a chemical material that makes up chromosomes and genes c genes a complex chemical units of a chromosome that control or influence inherited traits d genome all the DNA that an organism possessesOur body cells nuclei contain 23 pairs of chromosomes that are made up of about an astounding 20 metres of finely coiled deoxyribonucleic acid DNA molecules Each chromosome is divided into segments called genes each of which influences a particular feature or developmental pattern A gene controlling a specific characteristic always appears in the same place the locus on the same chromosome in every individual of the same species For example the locus of the gene that determines whether a persons blood is type A B or O is on chromosome 9 A genome is all the DNA an organism possessesC Epigenetics the study of the gene regulation patterns that alter gene function phenotype without changing gene structure genotype3 Define the following termsa epigenome the sum total of inherited and acquired molecular modifications to the genome that leads to changes in gene regulation without changing the DNA sequence of the genomeb gene expression when a gene sequence is activated turned on and ready to be translated into gene productsproteins for the most partc gene silencing when a gene sequence is made inactive turned off and is prevented from being translated into gene productsproteins for the most partmolecular biological compounds that overlay our DNA known collectively as the epigenome CallinanFeinberg 2006 see Figure 21 Possessing the gene for a specific trait does not guarantee that it will be expressed Although each cell in our body contains the same genetic code the same genotype our unique set of epigenetic markers regulate gene expression our phenotype Epigenetic markers work by signalling some genes to turn on gene expression and others to turn off gene silencing
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