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Chapter 1

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Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

III Evaluating Studies ValidityChapter 1 2 of 2Many have argued that the glue uniting scholars and researchers is a shared attitude of skepticism Skepticism or critically evaluating knowledge claims requires an analysis of validity In this section of the lecture template we will review TWO types of validity that you will be required to know for the short answer exam It is important to note that a single research study will never achieve absolute validity or truth validity is a matter of degree 1 Internal ValidityInternal validity pertains to causal research questions only That is when your research question is focused on discerning whether something IV causes something else DV When you have a causal research question you must ensure that your research design satisfies the following THREE criteriaProvides rules to establish causality You are able to say that the IV causes the DVExperiment is the only thing which meets all 3 criteria when done righta Association or CovarianceThis criterion implies that you must be able to establish that there is an association relationship between your variables IV and DVThe two variables must be associated to each other there must be a correlation between themIf you change the IV there must be a change in the DVHow can researchers establish that an association or relationship exists between the IV and DVAlter the IV and see if there is a change in the DVA significant correlation could establish that a relationship exists when using a survey methodIf you use the experiment method this could be proven by using a control groupyou compare the mean levels in the DV between the experimental and control groups control group kind of gives you a baselineIf you change the IVchange occurs in the DV and if you dont change the IV no change is seen in the DVCONTROL GROUP IS CRITICAL FOR THISb Temporal Ordering or Directionality This criterion implies that you must be able to establish that the IV is causing the DV to vary rather than the DV is causing the IV to vary Prove that the association is unidirectional and not bidirectional How can researchers establish temporal ordering or directionality between the IV and DVPre and post test would allow you to see what the DV was at baseline and then what it was with the change in IVManipulate the IV then measure DV afterMANIPULATION IS CRITICAL FOR THISc Elimination of Alternative Variables This criterion means that you must be able to establish that the effect DV is due to the presumed causal variable IV and not an alternative ie confounding variable
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