Chapeter 1 Answers
1. Developmental Psychology: The scientific study of age-related changes in our bodies,
behavior, thinking, emotions, social relationships, and personalities.
2. A) Original Sin (Christian doctrine): All humans are born with a selfish and stubborn
nature. It is the parent’s responsibility to facilitate the child’s struggle to overcome the
inborn tendency to act immorally by correcting the child.
B) The Blank Slate (John Locke): The mind of a child is a blank slate with no innate
tendencies. All differences among humans are attributable to experiences through
environment. Adults are able to mould children into whatever they want them to be.
C) Innate Goodness (Jean Jacques Rousseau): All humans are naturally good and seek
out experiences that help them grow. Good nurturing and protection will allow the child to
reach full potential.
D) C, Innate goodness by Jean Jacques Rousseau
3. A) Darwin
- Studying child development in hopes to understand the development of human
- developmental stages comes from evolutionary theory
- used questionnaires and interviews to study large numbers of children
- agreed with Darwin that milestones of childhood were similar to those that had
taken place in the development of the human species.
- thought that developmentalists should identify norms (averages ages at which
developmental milestones are reached) which could be used to learn about evolution of
species and also to track the development of individual children.
- existence of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change Maturation
- maturation development occurred regardless of practice, training, or effort.
eg. infants don’t have to be taught how to walk.
- used movie cameras to study children’s behavior
4. 3 ways how contemporary development has changed since early days.
a) the term development now encompasses the entire human lifespan rather than just
childhood and adolescence
b) developmentalists have come to understand that inborn characteristics interact with
environment factors in complex ways
c) today’s developmentalists view norms as representing only one way to measure
change, instead of exclusively in terms of norms 5. A) Psychologists who are primarily interested in individuals, have learned that research
in other sciences can greatly enhance their understanding of human development.
Anthropologists provide information about culture, Sociologists explain the influence of
race, socioeconomic status, and other social factors on individual development.
B) Lifespan perspective: The current view of developmentalists that changes happen
throughout the entire human lifespan and that changes must interpreted in light of the
culture and context in which they occur; thus, interdisciplinary research is critical to
understanding human development.
C) Paul Baltes proposed that the capacity for positive change, or plasiticity, in response
to environmental demands is possible throughout the entire lifespan.