FMST - Chapeter 2 independent questions.docx

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Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

1. Both genetic and epigenetic factors interact with environmental variables to shape our level of health and well-being. The epigenetic processes integrate with nature and nurture. Genetic and physiological processes that underlie human behavior changed gradually through genetic mutation and natural selection. 2. A) Chromosomes: strings of genetic material in the nuclei of cells B) DNA: a chemical material that makes up chromosomes and genes C) Genes: a complex chemical units of a chromosome that control or influence inherited traits D) Genome: all the DNA that an organism possesses 3. A) Poly genetic inheritance: a pattern of inheritance in which many genes influence trait. Eg. children get 3 genes for skin color from each parent B) Multifactorial inheritance: a pattern of inheritance affected by both genes and the environment. Eg. Child’s height to measure general health 4. A) Epigenome: the sum total of inherited and acquired molecular modifications to the genome that leads to changes in gene regulation without changing the DNA sequence of the genome B) Gene Expression: when a gene sequence is activated (turned on) and ready to be translated into gene products (proteins) C) Gene Silencing: when a gene sequence is made inactive (turned off) and is prevented from being translated into gene products 5. - Epigenetic factors : inheritable and acquired gene regulation patterns that alter gene function (phenotype) without changing structure(genotype). - Maternal care can physically alter molecular epigenetic structures in offspring - rats and mice epigenetic changes to liver, heart, brain, endocrine, reproductive, behavioral proteins can be passed on to offspring 6. A) Logic, if identical twins who are raised apart are more similar than fraternal twins or non-twin siblings who are raised together, heredity must play a role in the trait being studied. B) Over the course of a lifetime, environmental variables bring about changes in epigenetic markers in genetically identical pairs of twins which, in turn produce phenotypic changes including frequency and onset of disease. 7. Nativism: the view that humans possess unique genetic traits that will be manifested in all members of the species, regardless of differences in environments Eg. all children learn language early in life without any specific instructions from adults 8. Ethology: a perspective on development that emphasizes genetically determined survival behaviours presumed to have evolved through natural selection Eg. nests are necessary for the survival of young birds, therefore evolution has equipped birds with nest building genes 9. Behavioural Genetics: the study of the role of heredity in individual differences Eg. affects intelligences, shyness, aggressiveness 10. Sociobiology: the study of society using the methods and concepts of biology; when used by developmentalists, an approach that emphasizes genes that aid group survival Eg. every society has laws and rules based on respect for other people’s lives (against murder) 11. Advances in human genomics will play a vital role in predicting and preventing diseases - greatest impact in the treatment of multifactoal diseases such as heart disease and cancer - BC cancer agency has decoded the 3 billion letters in the DNA sequence of a type of breast cancer - but, epigenetic changes alter gene expression which can increase risk for developing both physical and psychological disorders -acquired epigenetic traits may be passed on to next generation - epigenetic research is contributing to our understanding of the inheritance factors involved with vulnerability and resilience and may lead to new ways of diagnosing and treating human diseases. 12. making accurate predictive- adaptive responses that match expected future environments 13. Critics claim there is an underestimate of t
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