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Chapter 3

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Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 3 – Independent Questions I. Conception A. The Process of Conception (Optional reading: Not on the exams) II. Pregnancy and Prenatal Development A. The Mother’s Experience 1. The mother’s experience of pregnancy is divided into 3 equal parts or trimesters: (i) first trimester: 0-12 weeks, (ii) second trimester: 13-24 weeks, (iii) third trimester: 25-38 weeks. (a) You need to know the information summarized under the headings “Trimester”, “Events” and “Serious Problems” (not “Prenatal Care”) in Table 3.1 (p. 62). - First trimester: from first day of last menstrual period (LMP) to 12 weeks - Events: missed period, breast enlargement, abdominal thickening - Serious problems: ectopic pregnancy, abnormal urine or blood tests, increased ))))))))))))blood pressure, malnutrition, bleeding, miscarriage - Second trimester: from 12 weeks after LMP to 24 weeks after LMP - Events: weight gain, showing, fetal movements felt, increased appetite - Serious problems: gestational diabetes, excessive weight gain, increased blood ))))))))))))pressure, Rh incompatibility of mother and fetus, miscarriage 13-20 weeks, ))))))))))))premature labor 21+ weeks - Third trimester: from 25 weeks after LMP to beginning of labor - Events: weight gain, breast discharge - Serious problems: increased blood pressure, bleeding, premature labor, bladder ))))))))))))infection (b)You also need to know the information related to the italicized words on pp. 61-63 under the subheadings “First Trimester”, “Second Trimester”, and “Third Trimester”. - Pregnancy: physical condition in which a woman’s body is nurturing a developing embryo or fetus - Prenatal development/gestation: the process that transforms a zygote into a newborn - Trimesters: the three periods of three months in which pregnancy is divided - Womb: a woman’s uterus, where the zygote implants itself - Cervix: the narrow, lower portions of the uterus, which extends into the vagina - Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) or morning sickness: feelings of nausea, often accompanied by vomiting that usually occur in the morning, but can also occur at any time during the day or the night - Ectopic pregnancy: when the zygote implants itself in the fallopian tube instead of in the uterus - Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage): around 15% of pregnancies end in miscarriage which from a woman’s point of view is similar to a menstrual period. Medical care is always necessary after a late-term miscarriage because the woman’s body may fail to completely expel the body - Gestational diabetes: a form of diabetes that only occurs during pregnancy. It must be tested for monthly using urine tests. A woman with diabetes must be carefully monitored as the baby can grow too rapidly causing premature labor or a baby that is too large for vaginal delivery - Colostrum: a secretion from a pregnant woman’s breasts during the third trimester in preparation for nursing - Toxemia of pregnancy: a pregnant woman’s blood pressure must constantly be monitored to avoid toxemia of pregnancy which is signaled by a sudden increase in blood pressure and which can lead to a stroke B. Prenatal Development 2. There are 2 patterns of physical growth in the developing fetus: cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns. Define each of these patterns of physical development. - Cephalocaudal pattern: growth that proceeds from the head downward - Proximodistal pattern: growth that process from the middle of the body outward 3. There are 3 stages of prenatal development, which are defined by specific developmental milestones. Unlike the mother’s experience, the three stages of prenatal development are not equal in length. The first 2 weeks are referred to as the germinal stage; weeks 3-8 are referred to as the embryonic stage; weeks 9-38 are referred to as the fetal stage. (a) You need to know all of the information in Table 3.2. (Except the first sentence about the average weight and length gains in the “Fetal Stage – Weeks 9-38”) - Germinal stage: Day 1: Conception - Sperm and ovum unite, forming a zygote containing genetic instructions for the developing of a new and unique human being - Days 10 to 14: Implantation - The zygote burrows into the linking of the uterus. Specialized cells that will become the placenta, umbilical cord, and embryo are already formed - Embryonic stage: Weeks 3 to 8: Organogenesis - All the embryo’s organ systems form during the 6-week period following implantation - Fetal stage: Weeks 9 to 38: Growth and organ refinement - By week 12, most fetuses can be identified as male or female. Changes in the brain and lungs make viability possible by week 24. Optimum development requires an additional 14 to 16 weeks in the womb. Most neurons form by week 28 and connections among them being to develop shortly thereafter. In the last 8 weeks, the fetus can hear and smell, is sensitive to touch and responds to light. Learning is also possible. (b)You also need to know the information related to the bold words on pp. 63-66 under the subheadings “The Germinal Stage”, “The Embryonic Stage”, and “The Fetal Stage”. - Germinal stage: the first stage of prenatal development, beginning at conception and ending at implantation (approximately 2 weeks) - Implantation: attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine wall - Placenta: specialized organ that allows substances to be transferred from mother to embryo and from embryo to mother without their blood mixing - Umbilical cord: organ that connects the embryo to the placenta - Amnion: fluid-filled sac in which the fetus floats until just before it is born - Embryonic stage: the second stage of prenatal development, from week 2 through week 8, during which the embryo’s organ systems form - Gonads: sex glands (ovaries in females, testes in males) - Organogen
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