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Chapter 10

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University of British Columbia
Family Studies
FMST 210
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 10 Independent Questions nd 1. What does society of childhood mean? (See 2 paragraph in the introduction section) - Children make up their own social rules that differ from those of an adult society - Children practice social competence by making up their own social rules rather than simply copying those that exist in adult world I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives 2. (a) What is the challenge of middle childhood (6 years old to puberty) according to Freud? - Forming emotional bonds with peers and moving beyond those that were developed with parents in earlier years (b) According to Erikson, why might a child develop a sense of inferiority rather than industry? - Children develop sense of their own competence through achievement of culturally defined learning goals - Industry: a child’s willingness to work to accomplish goals set by the culture or society (e.g. learning to read and write from 6 to 12 years old) - A child might develop a sense of inferiority if they fail to reach these goals (this emotional mindset may hamper an individual’s ability to achieve for the rest of his/her life. B. The Big Five Personality Traits 3. (a) What do trait theorists believe? (See first paragraph in this section) - By middle childhood, the various dimensions of temperament have evolved into five dimensions of personality (The Big Five) - Personality can be accurately assessed along these five dimensions in those 9-19 years old to effectively inform decisions concerning children at risk for adjustment problems in school and community (b) Identify the Big Five Personality Traits (You need to know all of Table 10.1) Trait Qualities of individuals who show the trait Possible temperament components Extraversion Active, assertive, enthusiastic, outgoing High activity level, sociability, positive emotionality, talkativeness Agreeableness Affectionate, forgiving, generous, kind, Perhaps high approach/positive sympathetic, trusting emotionality, perhaps effortful control Conscientiousness Efficient, organized, prudent, reliable, Effortful control/task persistence responsible Neuroticism (emotional Anxious, self-pitying, tense, touchy, Negative emotionality, irritability instability) unstable, worrying Openness/Intellect Artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, Approach, low inhibition original, wide interests (c) Why might children high in agreeableness display less aggression than children low in agreeableness? - They use more effective conflict resolution strategies (d) How might an extraverted child handle peer rejection differently than an introverted child? - Extraverted child: more determined to be accepted by group after being rejected by peers - Introverted child: may avoid social situations in future due to being distraught over being rejected by peers C. Social-Cognitive Perspectives – optional reading (not on exams) II. Self-Concept 4. What new aspects of self-concept are understood by the end of middle childhood? - 2 new aspects of self-concept - Psychological self: now I can describe my personality trait - Valued self: self-esteem A. The Psychological Self i. Personality Traits 5. Define the psychological self: a person's understanding of his/her enduring psychological characteristics (child’s unique characteristics, self-judgments of competency) - As child moves through concrete operational period, the psychological self becomes more complex, more comparative, less tied to external features ii. Self-efficacy – optional reading (not on exams) B. The Valued Self i. The Nature of Self-Esteem 6. The valued self is equivalent to self-esteem. Define self-esteem: a global evaluation of one's own worth. ii. How Self-Esteem Develops 7. (a) According to Susan Harter two things influence a child’s self-esteem. The first thing is described in paragraph one and two. The second thing is described in paragraph three. - Discrepancy between desired goals and actual goals - Decrease discrepancy: lower your goals (lower expectations to increase self-esteem) - Perceived support from others: esp. parents and peers (b) How do the criteria by which children learn to evaluate themselves differ in individualistic and collectivist cultures? - Individualistic cultures: parents help children develop a sense of self-esteem based un child’s interests, abilities - Collectivist cultures: children are taught to value themselves based on cultural ideals about what a “good” person is (c) Why is self-esteem at least moderately consistent over time? (See final paragraph) - The internal model of one’s self-esteem tends to persist because the child tends to choose experiences that will confirm and support it - The social environment tends to be at least moderately consistent iii. Meaningfulness – optional reading (not on exams) III. Advances in Social Cognition A. The Child as Psychologist – optional reading (not on exams) B. Moral Reasoning i. Piaget’s Moral Realism and Moral Relativism 8. Describe Piaget’s two-stage theory of moral development. (See paragraphs 1- 5) - Moral realism stage (beginning of middle childhood): - Rules of games can’t be changed because they come from authorities and any changes will result in punishment - Moral relativism stage (after age 8): - They learn people can change rules if they want to (what is important is that everyone follows the same rules, regardless of what they are) - They know that you can’t get punished for rule violations unless you get caught - More weight given to intentions than consequences compared to those in the moral realism stage IV. Social Relationships A. Family Relationships 9. Some studies have found that the single best predictor of better childhood outcomes, regardless of family structure, socioeconomic factors, or time spent in school, church, playing sports, or involved in the arts is family meals. i. The Child’s Understanding of Family Roles and Processes – optional reading (not on exams) ii. Attachment 10. How does the parent-child agenda change when the child reaches elementary school? (See last paragraph) - Disciplinary interactions between parent and child decline - Focus is now on household responsibilities, allowance, and standards for academic performance iii. Parental Expectations 11. (a) Why does the parent-child agenda change in middle childhood? - Parents recognize their children’s growing capacity for self-regulation: ability to conform to parental standards of behavior with direct supervision (b) Identify the sex differences in pare
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