Chapter 12 Independent Questions
I. Theories of Social and Personality Development
A. Psychoanalytic Perspectives
1. (a) According to Erikson, what is an identity crisis?
- A period during which adolescents’ tendency to identify with peer groups is a defense against the emotional turmoil
engendered by identity crisis
(b) How do peer groups help adolescents with an identity crisis?
- Teens protect themselves against unpleasant emotions of identity crisis by merging their individual identities with that
of a group
- Group forms a base of security from which young person can move toward a unique solution of the identity crisis
B. Marcia’s Theory of Identity Achievement
2. Marcia argued that adolescent identity formation consists of two key dimensions: a crisis and a commitment.
(a) Define crisis and commitment.
- In adolescence, the focus is on forming an identity, which consists of crisis, and commitment
- Crisis: a period of decision-making when old values and old choices are re-examined. This may occur as an upheaval
or gradually. (Challenge your beliefs, worldviews)
- You must commit to certain aspects of the self. (Commitment comes as a result of re-evaluation due to crisis.
Commitment may be a specific role, value, goal, or ideology.)
(b) Based on the two dimensions in 2a, four identity types emerge. Determine whether a crisis and whether a commitment
exists in each of the four types (See Figure 12.1).
(i) Identity Achievement (crisis, commitment)
(ii) Foreclosure (no crisis, commitment)
(iii) Moratorium (crisis, no commitment)
(iv) Identity Diffusion (no crisis, no commitment)
II. Self-Concept and Personality
A. Self-Understanding – optional reading (not on exams)
B. Gender Role - See Lecture Templates - Ch. 8 (Gender Identity)
C. Self-Esteem - See Lecture Templates – Ch. 8 (Gender Identity)
D. Ethnic Identity
3. Summarize the key points and research findings in this section.
- Over 70 distinct ethnic identities in Canada (varying linguistic, national, regional, racial, religious groupings)
- Minority teenagers must develop two identities
- Individual identity
- Ethnic identity: includes self-identification as a member of a specific group
- Process of developing ethnic identity can vary with social environment dominated by concerns of majority
- Intergenerational differences tend to become more pronounced the longer the term of residency
- Ethnic identity strengthens with age, progresses through phases
1. Haven’t paid attention/haven’t shown much interest in their ethnic identity (young children)
2. Individual becomes aware of differences between values/attitudes that exist with larger culture and her own culture
through exposure to media (young adolescent)
3. Individual may internalize ethnic identity: develop secure sense of pride in/commitment to ethnic group (adolescence)
- Those who form strong/favorable ethnic identities: higher self-esteem/optimism
- Those who form combined identities: highest level of self-esteem, best outcomes
- Those with bicultural identity feel positive about their own group/have more favorable relationships with other ethnic
groups - Some young Canadian immigrants are faced with having to learn another language as well as overcoming social isolation
- They form relationships with friends in whom they can confide
- 25%+ 12-14 year old immigrants who have been in Canada for less than 10 years: don’t have someone they can rely on
in crisis, when making important decisions
- Immigrant youth: seek social support through formal social groups: volunteer/religious organizations, actively participate
in religious organizations as way to establish social network
- After a decade: immigrant youth develop patterns of lifestyle behavior similar to Canadian-born youth (esp. changes in
participation in religious activities, smoking, alcohol consumption)
- After more than a decade:
- They have just as many close friends as Canadian-born youth
- Less likely to attend religious services
- More friends who drink and smoke
- Drink/smoke more themselves
Development in the Real World (p. 345) – optional reading (not on exams)
E. Locus of Control and Other Traits – optional reading (not on exams)
III. Moral Development
A. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Reasoning
i. Age and Moral Reasoning
4. (a) Very few children reason beyond stage 1 and 2.
(b) Most adolescents reason at stage 2 and 3.
(c) Most adults reason at stage 3 and 4.
ii. Preconventional Reasoning
5. (a) Describe preconventional reasoning (i.e., level 1 reasoning).
- Child’s judgments are based on sources of authority (close by, physically superior)
- Consequences typically determine rightness or wrongness of action
(b) Describe the first Stage of moral reasoning – the punishment and obedience orientation.
- Child relies on physical consequences on action to decide whether it is right or wrong
- If he punished, behavior is wrong and vice versa
- He is obedient to adults because they are bigger and stronger
(c) Describe the second Stage of moral reasoning – individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange.
- Child operate on principle that you should do things that are rewarded and avoid things that are punished
- Naïve hedonism
- If an action feels good or brings pleasant results, it’s good
- Some beginning of concern for other people is apparent: only if concern can be expressed as something that benefits
child/teenager as well (“If you help me, I’ll help you”)
iii. Conventional Reasoning
6. (a) Describe conventional reasoning (i.e., level 2 reasoning)
- Rules/norms of a group become basis for moral judgments
- What chosen reference group defines as right or wrong is reflected in individual’s view
(b) Describe the third Stage of moral reasoning – mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal
- Individuals believe that good behavior is what pleases other people
- They value trust, loyalty, respect, gratitude, maintenance of mutual relationships
- Individual makes judgments based on intentions as well as outward behavior (c) Describe the fourth Stage of moral reasoning – law-and-order orientation.
- Incorporation of the norms of a larger reference group into moral judgments
- People focus on duty, respecting authority, following rules/laws
- Regulations are not questioned
- Morality and legality assumed to be equivalent (changes in law can affect changes in moral views)
iv. Postconventional Reasoning
7. (a) Describe postconventional reasoning (i.e., level 3 reasoning).
- Shift in source of authority: authority seen as totally outside themselv