Some major trends of the 19th century!!!!!4 Jan 2011
•Globalization ➞ deﬁnition and when it began is debated. Increased interconnectedness of di!erent parts
of the world b/c of increased information & economic interaction.
•Technological change ➞ new technology & sources of power increased the number of goods that could
be produced & transported in a certain amount of time. Switch from animal/manpower to steam/water.
•Imperialism ➞ increased, by a handful of European countries. Partly due to increase in technological
change that gave them advantages over Asian and African populations ➞ temporary advantage because
eventually these pop’ns would adopt their technology too.
•Subordination of indigenous/Aboriginal peoples ➞ we know this happened from records ➞ almost all
empires needed a system of written record-keeping to function properly.
•New ideologies ➞ Developed by Europeans, these had a big impact on the rest of the world.
Until the 1800s, means of production was largely similar worldwide. Most engaged in agriculture, manual
work with some help from animals. Goods were also made by hand (using machines that required
manpower). Wind, water, and animal/human power are what made things work.
The Industrial Revolution and Britain — key elements!! 6 Jan 2011
1. Greater use of machines and automated factories instead of muscle power to get work done ➞ vehicles
were created, which could move more at a faster speed.
2. Changes in the way that human labour was recruited, organized, and used ➞ it created a wealthy
industrial middle class and a huge working class. Introduced new working system (regular hours, etc.)
These 2 elements vastly increased the output of ‘manufactured goods’ (which used to mean ‘make by
hand,’ now it means ‘make by machine’). Why it started in England, nobody knows for sure.
Steps of the industrial revolution - The Cotton Industry
In the 1780s, improved agricultural practices meant more food was harvested ➞ more people could be fed
at lower prices with less labour, giving people leftover money to buy other goods.
Started with changes in the textile (cloth) industry. There were a series of machinery improvements, but
the only problem was that when better weaving methods were employed, the speed at which yarn was
produced hadn’t been improved. Eventually waterpower and steam-power (from coal) replaced manpower
to produce thread and to weave.
1733 ➞ the ﬂying shuttle ➞ better weaving method that sped up the loom and doubled output. Wasn’t a
big deal because you still had the same amount of thread, you would just ﬁnish earlier.
1760s ➞ spinning jenny ➞ increased threat output almost 8x
1769 ➞ water frame ➞ used waterpower to spin wheels instead of manpower (still only 1 spool).
1780 ➞ spinning mule ➞ used waterpower to make multiple spools of thread. Now too much thread,
weaving wasn’t fast enough.
1780s ➞ power loom ➞ used steam-power to MASS PRODUCE cloth. Increasingly more coal extracted
Mining, railroads, and factories
New methods of burning impurities in iron ore created better iron, which was used to build new machines
and industries. Steam-powered railways were created, and eventually public railways were built. Railways
were important to the success of the IR; they created new jobs, and faster and cheaper means of
transportation made goods cheaper to buy, allowing markets to grow bigger. More sales = more factories
& machines, perpetuating the IR’s heavy emphasis on continuous, self-sustaining economic growth.
January 2011 History 102 Jess Giang
Factories replaced shop and home workrooms. As work on farms decreased, peasants moved to where the
mines, mills, and factories were. New work system imposed ➞ regular-hour work weeks, repetitive work.
Transformed social relationships ➞ created a wealthy industrial middle class and a working class (proles).
However, England began to run out of cotton (as cotton was not naturally grown in England). Ships were
improved to move faster as they needed to import cotton from Latin America (Spanish & Portuguese
speaking parts), India, Egypt. Before this, travel was largely land based.
The Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914)
Western world believed that the new industries, energy sources, and goods of the IR meant that material
progress = human progress. Humans could solve their problems with science.
Steel (1870) ➞ replaced iron. Could build lighter, smaller, and faster, ships, railways, & army equipment.
Electricity (1870-1910) ➞ new form of energy that moved easily through wires and could be converted into
heat, light, and motion energy. Eventually developed generators, and hydroelectric power stations that
connected homes in a neighborhood. Telephone ➞ beginning of communications revolution. Oil and
gasoline (and internal combustion engines), gave way to ocean liners, airplane, and cars.
Spread of Industrialization to the rest of the world
By the 19th century, most of the world was buying cotton products from Britain. Many countries copied
Britain ➞ spread of industrial revolution to Belgium, France, and German states. Britain displeased, as it
was better to have others dependent on them, less competition. Succeeded in limiting India. With the
spread of the IR, technical schools, roads, canals, and railroads popped up all over Europe, creating a huge
railroad network. The US’s railroad system and huge population increase made it a huge market for goods.
The Russian and Japanese gov’ts guided industrialization and allowed it to develop rapidly. Russia built
massive railroads, making steel and coal industries possible. By the 1900s, Russia was the 4th largest
producer of steel & supplied ½ the world’s oil.
In Japan, the gov’t supported industries, built railroads, trained its citizens in new industrial techniques,
and created a universal education based on applied science. Specialized in tea, shipbuilding, and silk.
Impact of the industrial revolution, 1750-1870
•Population growth and urbanization ➞ pop’n almost doubled in size due to more food and lower death
rates (major wars and diseases became less frequent). Steam engines meant that factories could be
located in cities, close to both transportation means and people looking for work.
•Big growth resulted in terrible living conditions ➞ cramped houses, open sewers, SMELLY, DIRTY
•The new industrial middle class ➞ before, the middle class were merchants, o#cials, lawyers, teachers,
doctors, etc., now it was factory owners motivated by money and resourcefulness.
•The new industrial working class ➞ 12-16 hrs, 6 days/week, with no job security or minimum wage.
Both children and women worked in factories and mines ➞ children smaller, could maneuver machines
more easily, and were cheap and abundant (in 1821 half of the pop’n was under 20).
•With social class changes, some cities experienced a breakdown of social values & political instability.
•Traditional societies were forever changed by the IR.
•Women still expected to stay at home to ensure the moral and physical well-being of families (even
though many had to work in sweatshops to support unemployed husbands).
Second Industrial Revolution Times and Onwards: Mass society and towards a world economy
•By 1900, Europe was divided into 2 economic zones. Great Britain, Belgium, France, Germany,
Netherlands, and Northern Italy were highly industrialized with a high standard of living and decent
January 2011 History 102 Jess Giang
transportation, while Southern and Eastern Europe, and Russia were still largely agricultural, providing
food and raw materials to the other countries.
•Germany replaced Britain as the industrial leader of Europe in 1900s.
•Large industrial societies made democratic gov’ts stronger and led to higher standard of living for many
•Helped reduce class barriers and broke women free from many legal and social restrictions
•The second IR created new jobs for women as gov’ts and factories expanded and service and white-
collar jobs were created. For want of low wages, and because of a shortage of male workers, women
were hired. Mandatory education = need for teachers, and rise of hospitals = need for nurses.
•Wages increased, prices of goods decreased (because of decreased transportation costs), so more goods
were bought ➞ rise of ﬁrst malls & consumer culture ➞ rise of the modern economy.
•Technological and transportation improvements led to a true world economy (worldwide trading) ➞
Europeans received several of their goods from all around the world. They also invested money abroad to
build more infrastructure. With its military power, Europe dominated the world economy.
Possible reasons why Britain industrialized ﬁrst (why not China?)
•Cultural reasons ➞ Protestant work ethic, social discipline and class hierarchy in Japan
•Britain had access to capital, coal, rivers, and natural resources, and a network of trade relations [which
perhaps also forced European countries to industrialize]. China didn’t have neighbours who threatened
it, and didn’t see Europe as a threat.
•Ability to exploit their colonies for money and resources.
Although economic regulation by gov’t has always existed, during the enlightenment the French
physiocrats advocated a gov’t who regulated the economy but not other areas (like who could do what
work, the quality of the product). Successful, reason why mills and coal mines were largely unregulated.
Organizing the working classes: Marxism
Marxism arose because many wanted to improve their work and living conditions (they formed socialist
parties and unions). Class struggle between the bourgeoisie and proletariat. The ruling class (the
oppressors) owned the means of production and thus had the most power and could control the gov’t.
The oppressed were dependent on the oppressors for work.
Division in Marxism. Pure marxists (revolutionaries) believed that the proletariat would eventually
overthrow the bourgeoisie, organize the means of production, and eventually produce a stateless, classless
society as the economic di!erences that created class would be abolished. Revisionists believed that
workers needed to gain democracy through political parties.
1870s ➞ unions win the right to strike, trade unions become very popular. By WWI, they had some success
in raising the living and working conditions of workers.
Europe in 1815!!!!!!!!13 January 2011
1814 - Napoleon I abdicated and exiled to Elba. Congress of Vienna - Major European powers went to
Vienna to decide how Europe should be governed now.
1815 - Napoleon attempts to grab power again, was defeated and exiled again ➞ new period of European
history, the RESTORATION (b/c many rulers who were dethroned during the 1789 French revolution were
now restored to their kingdom), but the political system of 1789 was never reinstalled — too much had
changed, idea of mass political participation too strong ➞ they kept the Napoleonic (civil) Code (which
eliminated privileges (feudalism and serfdom), installed meritocracy, secularization, equality of citizens,
(serfdom & feudalism), religious toleration, and some variation of Parliament.
January 2011 History 102 Jess Giang