KIN 231 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Social Comparison Theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Exercise Intensity

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
UBC
Department
Kinesiology
Course
KIN 231
Chapter 4-Motivation and behavioral change
Behavioral approaches:
Positive reinforcement involves any factor that increases behavior. Negative
reinforcement involves the removal of any factor. Punishment is a factor that
decreases this behavior.
Cognitive approaches:
In the cognitive approach, the individual is viewed as an active participant such
that it is his or her interpretation of the external environment that exerts a
powerful influence on behavior. The belief that automatic though processes (I
messed up again), cognitive errors (personalization of negative events), and core
beliefs (low self-esteem) can be altered with persistence. Alteration is based on
recognition and identification of one’s systematic thought, automatic thoughts,
and basic beliefs. Once thought processes have been recognized, they can be
challenged and changed to more accurately reflect reality. Cognitive approach
teaches people to use rational thought, logic and empiricism to reform through
patterns.
Cognitive-behavioral approaches:
Relates it to changing behavior. They are based on: 1) Our cognitions influence
our emotions and behavior, 2) our behavior can affect our thought patters and
emotions. Cognitive behavioral approaches, including self monitoring, goal
setting, feedback and decision making have been found to be effective for
increasing self-reported exercise behavior.
Models of motivation and behavioral change:
Campaigns based on understanding of the factors that shape the behavioral
decisions people make about their health. The primary application of
motivational models has been either to predict physical activity behavior or to
describe the thoughts and feelings of people who have engaged in a particular
pattern of behavior.
Transtheoretical model:
Used as a framework to understand how individuals initiate and adopt regular
physical activity. Proposes that individuals move through a temporal sequence
of: 1) Pre-contemplation (no exercise in next 6 months)
2) Contemplation (individuals consider beginning exercise in next 6 months)
3) Preparation (individuals made small changes towards becoming more
physically active)
4) Action (individuals have begun exercising in the past 6 months)
5) Maintenance (individuals exercise and have done it for more than 6 months)
This process is not linear and people can enter the process at any stage and may
relapse to previous stage.
Factors influencing stage progression:
TM identifies different factors that influence individuals decisions to become
more physically active at each stage. First factor is self-efficacy (belief in ones
capability to organize and execute the course of action required to produce
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specific outcomes). Decisional balance is a set of values linked with advantaged
and disadvantages of behavioral change. The disadvantages outweigh the
benefits. Processes of change reflect strategies that individuals use to progress
through stages and are divided into two dimensions that serve as targets for
intervention programs. The first dimension, experiential or cognitive processes,
include strategies used to help an individual modify patterns. Used in pre-
activity stages, include information seeking, reconsidering the consequences of
inactivity, the expression of feelings about inactivity and evaluating the
consequences of engaging in physical activity for others. Second dimension,
behavioral processes, includes increased social support for behavioral
engagement, the use of rewards and reinforcement and use of appropriate cues
for maintaining behavior.
Research on the transtheoretical model in exercise psychology
A large Canadian sample, self-efficacy and behavioral processes discriminated
between those who intended to engage in physical activity and those who did not
The greatest risk for relapse was found in the preparation stage, with primary
barriers including time, access to facilities and limited opportunities outside
physical education.
Female employees who received physical information targeted for their
individual stage of change increased their physical activity compared to those
who did not receive information.
Stage
Potential change
strategies
Examples
Pre-contemplation
Increased awareness of
need for change
Health communication
activities
Contemplation
Motivate, encourage
making specific plans
Encouragement from
others, supportive
policies
Preparation
Assist with goal
development and
progression to achieve
targeted behavior
Guidelines to change
behavioral. Individual
and environmental
support approach for
behavior
Action
Assist with feedback,
problem solving, social
support and
reinforcement
Continued social and
environmental support.
Reaching behavioral
goals, self-efficacy
awareness
Maintenance
Assist with coping,
reminders, finding
alternative and avoiding
slips
Relapse-prevention
techniques. Continued
social, environmental
and policy support
The TM model holds appeal to an individual and population health level since it
includes guidelines on what information to provide at each stage of behavior.
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Theory of planned behavior:
This highlights personal and social factors as influences of behavior. It says the
most proximal determinant of behavior is intention, a person’s readiness to
perform a behavior. The TPB is popular for accounting for exercise and leisure
time physical activity behavior. TPB 3 main factors: Attitude-reflects the positive
or negative evaluation of engaging in a behavior. Subjective norms-reflect
perceived social pressures to perform a behavior that stem from various
personal or environmental sources. Perceived behavioral control-reflects the
extent to which behavior is volitional and is thought to indirectly affect behavior
through intention as well as being direct influence. They all reflect a set of
underlying beliefs. Behavioral beliefs suggest that being physically active will
lead to certain consequences and an evaluation of the consequences. Common
behavioral beliefs include that exercise enhances fitness and health, improves
physical appearance, is fun and enjoyable and promotes social interactions.
Normative beliefs reflect perceptions of significant others and the value that they
place on physical activity behavior and consequences. Control beliefs are the
perceived barriers and facilitators of engaging in a behavior. Common control
beliefs for exercise include lack of time, lack of energy and weather
Research on the theory of planned behavior in sport and exercise psychology:
There is evidence of the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity behavior
in diverse clinical populations including colorectal and breast cancer survivors,
individuals with spinal cord injuries and individuals showing symptoms of
peripheral artery disease.
Various behavioral beliefs, control beliefs were associated with exercise
behavior six months after engagement in exercise.
Applications of the theory of planned behavior:
Attitude towards physical activity may be increased by increasing the knowledge
of the benefits of exercise and the importance of those benefits. Education can
occur at different levels.
Social cognitive theory: a focus on self-efficacy
The core of SCT is self-efficacy beliefs which serve as the foundation for human
motivation, well being and personal accomplishment. Self-efficacy is a situation-
specific form of self-confidence that focuses on the extent to which an individual
feels he or she will be successful in producing a specific outcome.
Sources of self-efficacy:
Source
Definition
Example
Mastery experience
Past performance success
and failures for similar
behaviors
Woman who signs up for
marathon training, derive her self-
efficacy beliefs from her previous
experiences walking/jogging
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Document Summary

Positive reinforcement involves any factor that increases behavior. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of any factor. Punishment is a factor that decreases this behavior. In the cognitive approach, the individual is viewed as an active participant such that it is his or her interpretation of the external environment that exerts a powerful influence on behavior. The belief that automatic though processes (i messed up again), cognitive errors (personalization of negative events), and core beliefs (low self-esteem) can be altered with persistence. Alteration is based on recognition and identification of one"s systematic thought, automatic thoughts, and basic beliefs. Once thought processes have been recognized, they can be challenged and changed to more accurately reflect reality. Cognitive approach teaches people to use rational thought, logic and empiricism to reform through patterns. They are based on: 1) our cognitions influence our emotions and behavior, 2) our behavior can affect our thought patters and emotions.

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