Textbook Notes (362,837)
Canada (158,073)
KIN 231 (1)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
KIN 231
Mark Beauchamp

Chapter 4-Motivation and behavioral change Behavioral approaches: Positive reinforcement involves any factor that increases behavior. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of any factor. Punishment is a factor that decreases this behavior. Cognitive approaches: In the cognitive approach, the individual is viewed as an active participant such that it is his or her interpretation of the external environment that exerts a powerful influence on behavior. The belief that automatic though processes (I messed up again), cognitive errors (personalization of negative events), and core beliefs (low self-esteem) can be altered with persistence. Alteration is based on recognition and identification of one’s systematic thought, automatic thoughts, and basic beliefs. Once thought processes have been recognized, they can be challenged and changed to more accurately reflect reality. Cognitive approach teaches people to use rational thought, logic and empiricism to reform through patterns. Cognitive-behavioral approaches: Relates it to changing behavior. They are based on: 1) Our cognitions influence our emotions and behavior, 2) our behavior can affect our thought patters and emotions. Cognitive behavioral approaches, including self monitoring, goal setting, feedback and decision making have been found to be effective for increasing self-reported exercise behavior. Models of motivation and behavioral change: Campaigns based on understanding of the factors that shape the behavioral decisions people make about their health. The primary application of motivational models has been either to predict physical activity behavior or to describe the thoughts and feelings of people who have engaged in a particular pattern of behavior. Transtheoretical model: Used as a framework to understand how individuals initiate and adopt regular physical activity. Proposes that individuals move through a temporal sequence of: 1) Pre-contemplation (no exercise in next 6 months) 2) Contemplation (individuals consider beginning exercise in next 6 months) 3) Preparation (individuals made small changes towards becoming more physically active) 4) Action (individuals have begun exercising in the past 6 months) 5) Maintenance (individuals exercise and have done it for more than 6 months) This process is not linear and people can enter the process at any stage and may relapse to previous stage. Factors influencing stage progression: TM identifies different factors that influence individuals decisions to become more physically active at each stage. First factor is self-efficacy (belief in ones capability to organize and execute the course of action required to produce specific outcomes). Decisional balance is a set of values linked with advantaged and disadvantages of behavioral change. The disadvantages outweigh the benefits. Processes of change reflect strategies that individuals use to progress through stages and are divided into two dimensions that serve as targets for intervention programs. The first dimension, experiential or cognitive processes, include strategies used to help an individual modify patterns. Used in pre- activity stages, include information seeking, reconsidering the consequences of inactivity, the expression of feelings about inactivity and evaluating the consequences of engaging in physical activity for others. Second dimension, behavioral processes, includes increased social support for behavioral engagement, the use of rewards and reinforcement and use of appropriate cues for maintaining behavior. Research on the transtheoretical model in exercise psychology  A large Canadian sample, self-efficacy and behavioral processes discriminated between those who intended to engage in physical activity and those who did not The greatest risk for relapse was found in the preparation stage, with primary barriers including time, access to facilities and limited opportunities outside physical education. Female employees who received physical information targeted for their individual stage of change increased their physical activity compared to those who did not receive information. Stage Potential change Examples strategies Pre-contemplation Increased awareness of Health communication need for change activities Contemplation Motivate, encourage Encouragement from making specific plans others, supportive policies Preparation Assist with goal Guidelines to change development and behavioral. Individual progression to achieve and environmental targeted behavior support approach for behavior Action Assist with feedback, Continued social and problem solving, social environmental support. support and Reaching behavioral reinforcement goals, self-efficacy awareness Maintenance Assist with coping, Relapse-prevention reminders, finding techniques. Continued alternative and avoiding social, environmental slips and policy support The TM model holds appeal to an individual and population health level since it includes guidelines on what information to provide at each stage of behavior. Theory of planned behavior: This highlights personal and social factors as influences of behavior. It says the most proximal determinant of behavior is intention, a person’s readiness to perform a behavior. The TPB is popular for accounting for exercise and leisure time physical activity behavior. TPB 3 main factors: Attitude-reflects the positive or negative evaluation of engaging in a behavior. Subjective norms-reflect perceived social pressures to perform a behavior that stem from various personal or environmental sources. Perceived behavioral control-reflects the extent to which behavior is volitional and is thought to indirectly affect behavior through intention as well as being direct influence. They all reflect a set of underlying beliefs. Behavioral beliefs suggest that being physically active will lead to certain consequences and an evaluation of the consequences. Common behavioral beliefs include that exercise enhances fitness and health, improves physical appearance, is fun and enjoyable and promotes social interactions. Normative beliefs reflect perceptions of significant others and the value that they place on physical activity behavior and consequences. Control beliefs are the perceived barriers and facilitators of engaging in a behavior. Common control beliefs for exercise include lack of time, lack of energy and weather Research on the theory of planned behavior in sport and exercise psychology: There is evidence of the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity behavior in diverse clinical populations including colorectal and breast cancer survivors, individuals with spinal cord injuries and individuals showing symptoms of peripheral artery disease. Various behavioral beliefs, control beliefs were associated with exercise behavior six months after engagement in exercise. Applications of the theory of planned behavior: Attitude towards physical activity may be increased by increasing the knowledge of the benefits of exercise and the importance of those benefits. Education can occur at different levels. Social cognitive theory: a focus on self-efficacy The core of SCT is self-efficacy beliefs which serve as the foundation for human motivation, well being and personal accomplishment. Self-efficacy is a situation- specific form of self-confidence that focuses on the extent to which an individual feels he or she will be successful in producing a specific outcome. Sources of self-efficacy: Source Definition Example Mastery experience Past performance success Woman who signs up for and failures for similar marathon training, derive her self- behaviors efficacy beliefs from her previous experiences walking/jogging Vicarious experience Modeled behaviors A trauma patient watch a fellow associated with patient successfully complete a development of change in series of exercises in a strength self-efficacy, including training program imagery use and target similarity as key features Social persuasion Verbal and non-verbal Personal strategies such as self- feedback from significant talk. Feedback from coaches, knowledgeable others friends, fitness trainers, is a good source Physiological and Physical and emotional Such as pain and fatigue, may lead affective states cues associated with an exerciser to doubt his or her performance and behavior capability to successfully run on the treadmill, personal coping used to help decrease physiological and affective states. Research on social cognitive theory constructs and sport and exercise behavior: SCT variables of self-efficacy, outcome expexcataions, impediments and social support predicted over 50% of the individual differences in physical activity behavior goals across a 6 month period in a population based sample of Canadian diabetics. Self-efficacy is linked to behavioral outcomes such as sport performance, exercise adherence, energy expenditure in children and physical participation in individuals attending cardiac rehabilitation. Three types of self-efficacy to help understand women’s behavior. Task efficacy, coping efficacy and scheduling efficacy were assessed. Coping and scheduling efficacy increased over time, whereas task efficacy remained stable Self-determination theory: A global theory of human motivation and development. The main focus is the extent to which behaviors such as sport and exercise participation are undertaken volitionally as opposed to being controlled by some external agent or contingency. SDT asserts that people are naturally endowed with innate tendencies for personal growth and development that flourish when social environments provide optimal conditions. SDT is compromised of 4 mini- theories that inform our understanding of motivated behavior, cognition and affective experiences in life. Cognitive evaluation theory, specifies how various conditions shape the development of intrinsic motivation. Not all behavior is intrinsically motivated, organismic integration theory describes the extent to which behavior is motivated for different extrinsic reasons that represent varying degrees of internalization, extrinsic motives can range from highly autonomous to more controlling in nature. Causality orientations theory (COT) uses personality level constructs to describe individual differences in the degree to which people are self-determined as opposed to controlled. Basic need theory (BNT) is the fourth subcomponent of the SDT framework and is concerned with the nature and function of psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness in relation to motivation and well-being. Self-determination theory: a focus on organismic integration and basic need theories: OIT and BNT deserve additional attention because they deal with the special nature of motivation in sport and exercise and the manner in which motivation is developed by athletes and exercisers. Amotivation or absence of motivation which occurs when individuals perceive no connection between their actions and the outcomes to be derived from the activity. At the other end is intrinsic regulation. This is concerned with athletes and exercisers engaging in activity because its enjoyable, interesting, stimulating or self-rewarding. 4 different forms of extrinsic motivation: External regulation: is the least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation and is concerned with exercising or playing sport to fulfill some external contingency or demand such as appeasing another person or winning a trophy. Introjected regulation, people who engage in exercise or play sport are avoiding negative emotions or trying to maintain a fragile sense of self-worth. Identified regulation occurs when participation in sport is linked to important and valued goals. An athlete may train hard because he realized how important it is. Integrated regulation is concerned with participating in sport because the activities are symbolic of the person’s identity. Extrinsic motives differ from one another on the basis of the degree of self-determination accompanying their development and regulation, with more self-determined motives linked to behavioral persistence and more positive cognitive and affective feelings. Type of motivation depends on the function of the degree to which athletes fulfill their basic psychological needs. There are 3 psychological needs that when fulfilled they facilitate the internalization of behavioral regulation via more self- determined than control motives. Competence is concerned with feeling effective and capable when undertaking challen
More Less

Related notes for KIN 231

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.