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MICB 201
Wade Bingle

MICB 201 Chapter 1 Learning ObjectivesOutcomes 2012W T1 Explain the general bases on which Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya are distinguished There are three domains of lifeeukarya bacteria and archaeaEach type of organism has a different cell typeEukaryal cells have a true nucleustheir DNA is enclosed in a membrane bound compartment called the nuclear membraneThey also have other membranous organelles such as mitochondria chloroplasts endoplasmic reticulum etc On the other hand bacteria and archaea lack a true nucleusmost prokaryotes have their DNA in the cytoplasmThose that have a membrane surrounding their DNA exist but this membrane is different from those of eukaryotesProkaryotes have a nuclear region called a nucleoid which is basically the organisms chromosomes and associated proteins or other small moleculesMost prokaryotes have a circular chromosome as their genome possibly with plasmids and stuffMost prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles meaning that they look very simple under a microscopeIn fact they are still performing many of the processes that eukaryotes do in their membrane bound organelles it simply occurs in the cytoplasm insteadBecause of their similar structures bacteria and archaea cannot be distinguished by comparison under the microscope even the electron microscopeThey must be examined at the molecular level Describe the structural features that distinguish bacterial archaeal and eukaryal cells The structural features that distinguish bacterial and archaeal from eurkaryal cells is that they lack a true nucleus since bacteriaarchaea are a type of prokaryotype they instead have a nuclear region known as the nucleoid where the chromosome single circular chromosome is located with special proteins and other small molecules Also many lack membranebound organelles which means their cellular activities arent carried out in specialized compartments instead it is carried out in the cytoplasm It is very difficult to distinguish between a bacteria and archaea because they are similar structurally but the structures of molecules that make up each organism differs between each other Eukaryal cells differ from bacteriaarchaea because they have a true nucleus that is membranebound and they have different membranebound organelles mitochondriaERgolgi body that carry out various functions Explain the importance of proteins and diversity of protein function to life Proteins are molecular machines of the cellThey perform many functions that are necessary for lifeEnzymes speed up reactions that would be too slow without a catalyst for the organism to surviveProteins are also necessary for transport to and from organelles or within the cellAlso transport across membranes since membranes are generally impermeable especially to charged relatively large molecules such as proteins or large ions like phosphates and nitratesProteins are also used in structures like microtubules flagella pili and they are needed to compact the DNAotherwise the DNA would be too large to fit in the cell if not compactedProteins are involved with degradation of mRNA and other proteins when they are not necessaryProteins are needed to replicate DNA polymerases and other proteinsProteins are needed to regulate gene expression repressors and activators
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